Molecular determinants for Nef's activity in HIV-infected HLAC. HLACs were infected with 3 ng p24 of wt HIV-1, Δnef HIV-1 or HIV-1 encoding for the indicated Nef mutants in quadruplicates. (A) p24 production over the culture period. (B) CD4+ T cell depletion on day 12 p.i. Asterisks indicate statistical significance by Mann-Whitney-U analysis (*** p ≤ 0.0005, ** p < 0.005, * p < 0.05). The top panels present mean values of all individual experiments (n = 7–12), bottom panels are boxplots of the data shown on the top with the indicated upper and lower quartile, median, maxima and minima.