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Table 1 Myeloid lineage cell types and their potential roles and proposed mechanisms in HIV-1 latency

From: HIV interactions with monocytes and dendritic cells: viral latency and reservoirs

Cell types Primary Locations Cellular markers Potential role in HIV latency and proposed mechanisms References
Monocytes Peripheral blood CD14++ or CD16+CD14+ YES, but possibly mainly in CD16+ cells • Restricted HIV-1 replication at different steps of viral life-cycle • Low molecular weight APOBEC3G (CD16+ only) • Low level or undetectable Cyclin T1 • Impaired phosphorylation of CDK9 [1012, 8792, 94]
Macrophages Mucosal surface/tissues CD14- EMR1+ CD68+ NO • High level Cyclin T1 • Phosphorylation of CDK9 and active P-TEFb [14, 18, 94, 97]
Myeloid DCs Peripheral blood (immature) Lymph node (mature) CD11c+ CD123- BDCA1+ YES • Low level virus replication • Lymph node biopsies reveal presence • Unknown mechanism [101, 107, 112]
Plasmacytoid DCs Peripheral blood (immature) Lymph node (mature) CD11c- CD123+ BDCA2+ BDCA4+ Unlikely • Inhibiting HIV-1 replication through the secretion of IFNα and an unidentified small molecule • Unknown mechanism [49, 50, 101]
Langerhans cells Mucosal surface and epidermal tissue CD1a+ Langerin+ Unlikely • Langerin inhibits virus transmission and enhances virus take-up and degradation • May act differently in co-infections [40, 41, 113]
  1. EMR1, epidermal growth factor module-containing mucin-like receptor 1 (a G-protein coupled receptor); BDCA, blood DC antigen.