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Table 1 Myeloid lineage cell types and their potential roles and proposed mechanisms in HIV-1 latency

From: HIV interactions with monocytes and dendritic cells: viral latency and reservoirs

Cell types Primary Locations Cellular markers Potential role in HIV latency and proposed mechanisms References
Monocytes Peripheral blood CD14++
or CD16+CD14+
YES, but possibly mainly in CD16+ cells
• Restricted HIV-1 replication at different steps of viral life-cycle
• Low molecular weight APOBEC3G (CD16+ only)
• Low level or undetectable Cyclin T1
• Impaired phosphorylation of CDK9
[1012, 8792, 94]
Macrophages Mucosal surface/tissues CD14-
EMR1+
CD68+
NO
• High level Cyclin T1
• Phosphorylation of CDK9 and active P-TEFb
[14, 18, 94, 97]
Myeloid DCs Peripheral blood (immature)
Lymph node (mature)
CD11c+
CD123-
BDCA1+
YES
• Low level virus replication
• Lymph node biopsies reveal presence
• Unknown mechanism
[101, 107, 112]
Plasmacytoid DCs Peripheral blood (immature)
Lymph node (mature)
CD11c-
CD123+
BDCA2+
BDCA4+
Unlikely
• Inhibiting HIV-1 replication through the secretion of IFNα and an unidentified small molecule
• Unknown mechanism
[49, 50, 101]
Langerhans cells Mucosal surface and epidermal tissue CD1a+
Langerin+
Unlikely
• Langerin inhibits virus transmission and enhances virus take-up and degradation
• May act differently in co-infections
[40, 41, 113]
  1. EMR1, epidermal growth factor module-containing mucin-like receptor 1 (a G-protein coupled receptor); BDCA, blood DC antigen.