Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines during chronic infection of rhesus macaques with the pathogenic SIVmac251 strain. A) IL-8 and IL-1β levels during chronic infection of rhesus macaques with the pathogenic SIVmac251 strain (slow progressors SIV+ SP, and moderate progressors, SIV+ MP) or the attenuated SIVΔnef strain. Plasma levels of IL-8 and IL-1β were measured by using the inflammatory cytokine cytometric bead array (CBA).* Significantly different (p < 0.05). B) Effect of IL-8 and IL-1β on PMN survival. Whole blood samples from SIV+ rhesus macaques were incubated at 37°C for 4 hours either with IL-8 (100 ng/ml), IL-1 (100 ng/ml) or PBS. Results are expressed as percentage of annexin V+/7-AAD- cells (early apoptotic cells). Data are reported as means ± SEM. Comparisons were based on ANOVA and Tukey's posthoc test, using Prism 3.0 software. * Significantly different from samples incubated with PBS alone (p < 0.05).