Implication of RNAi in HIV-1 latency. PBMCs were isolated from three patients undergoing active HAART. Isolated PBMCs were transfected with the indicated siRNA and either analyzed for RCK/p54, DGCR8 and DROSHA expression by Western blotting 48 hours after transfection (right panel) or co-cultured with activated PBMCs obtained from healthy donors. Virus replication was monitored every 3 to 4 days post co-culture by measuring p24 antigen in culture supernatant. Shown is the amount of p24 antigen at day 15 post co-culture. No virus was isolated from Scr transfected-PBMCs for up to 27 days.