Virucidal activity of lime in the presence of semen. Immobilised HIV-1RF (using poly L-lysine capture) was treated with LiJ (diluted in normal saline) in the absence (red circles/solid line) or presence of seminal plasma (50% seminal plasma: dark blue circles/dashed line; 25% seminal plasma: light blue circles/dotted line) for 5, 30 or 60 minutes. Juice and semen were then removed by washing and immobilised virus cultured with C8166 T cells for 7 days. Viral replication was determined by measurement of RT in culture supernatants. LiJ concentrations tested were: A) 50%; B) 25%; C) 10%; and D) 5%. Data shown are expressed as percentage infection (when compared to an untreated virus control) and represent the mean ± SEM of n = 3 (25% seminal plasma) or n = 5 (50% or no seminal plasma) independent experiments where each condition was tested in triplicate. Statistical analysis (ANOVA with Bonferroni post tests) was performed comparing LiJ treated samples and an untreated viral control, and comparing samples in the presence (2 concentrations) or absence (LiJ only) of seminal plasma. Those conditions causing statistically significant differences are marked with asterisks (* p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001) and are colour coded (red: juice only; dark blue: LiJ with 50% seminal plasma; light blue: LiJ with 25% seminal plasma).