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Table 3 Association between the main components of the socioeconomic status (SES) and adherence to treatment in HIV infected patients.

From: Socioeconomic status (SES) as a determinant of adherence to treatment in HIV infected patients: a systematic review of the literature

First author, Year of publication [Reference Number] Income Education Employment Main Findings
Laniece I., 2003 [23] S.S.* -* - Mean adherence among patients who were free of charge was higher than those participating in cost, in a statistically significant level, during 17 months of the study. Mean adherence among patients participating in cost + receiving D4T/ddI/IDV increased when cost participation decreased (during second year of study).
Mohammed H., 2004 [26] N.S.* N.S. - No SES components were significantly associated with adherence.
Eldred L.J., 1998 [27] N.S. N.S. - No SES components were significantly associated with adherence.
Kleeberger C.A., 2004 [24] N.S. S.S. N.S. Having less than a college education was an independent factor significantly associated with lowering adherence from optimal to suboptimal between two consecutive visits of the patient.
Peretti-Watel P., 2005 [28] S.S. - - Poor living conditions (except for food privation among homosexual men) were identified as an independent factor significantly associated with suboptimal adherence in all of the patients' subgroups.
Fong O.W., 2003 [15] - - S.S. Having a busy workload was found as an independent factor significantly associated with lower level of adherence.
Kleeberger C.A., 2001 [25] S.S. N.S. N.S. Annual income <50,000 US$ was identified as an independent factor significantly associated with lower level of adherence.
Goldman D.P., 2002 [16] - S.S. - Higher level of education was identified as a factor significantly associated with receiving HAART as a regimen and with higher level of adherence when using HAART.
Golin C.E., 2002 [14] S.S. S.S. N.S. Lower income and lower education were identified as independent factors significantly associated with lower level of adherence.
Singh N., 1999 [3] N.S. N.S. N.S. No SES components were significantly associated with adherence.
Kalichman S.C., 1999 [29] N.S. S.S. - Higher level of education and higher health literacy (among those with higher level of education) were identified as independent factors significantly associated with higher level of adherence.
Weiser S., 2003 [30] S.S. S.S. - Cost as a barrier to treatment was identified as an independent factor significantly associated with lower level of adherence (and gaps in treatment of otherwise would-be adherent patients). Incomplete secondary education was significantly associated with higher level of adherence.
Morse E.V., 1991 [21] S.S. N.S. - Receiving economic support by a 'significant other' was identified as an independent factor significantly associated with higher level of adherence.
Gebo K.A., 2003 [31] S.S. - - Running out of money for essentials during the previous 90 days was identified as an independent factor significantly associated with lower level of adherence.
Duong M., 2001 [32] - N.S. N.S. No SES components were significantly associated with adherence.
Ickovics J.R, 2002 [4] N.S. N.S. N.S. No SES components were significantly associated with adherence.
Singh N., 1996 [22] N.S. N.S. N.S. No SES components were significantly associated with adherence.
  1. *S.S. = Statistically significant association found between SES component and adherence to treatment,
  2. N.S. = No significant association found between SES component and adherence to treatment,
  3. (-) = Association between SES component and adherence to treatment not examined