Subcellular localization of wild type Vpr and Vpr mutants in human monocyte-derived-macrophages. MDMs expressing either GFP, wt Vpr-GFP, or the indicated Vpr-GFP mutants were fixed and analyzed by wide-field microscopy. Z stacks of fluorescent images were acquired using a piezo with a 0.2 μm increment and one medial section is shown (left panels). Phase contrast images of the same cells were acquired to identify the nucleus (right panels). Scale bar, 5 μm.