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Table 1 Methods currently used to detect HIV-1 dual infections

From: Identifying HIV-1 dual infections

Sample availability Pre-selection method Able to detect Follow-up Discovery of Limitations Success ratea
Single sample Serotyping (env-V3) Different subgroups/subtypes only Sequencing/phylogenetic analysis Dual infection Different subgroups/subtypes only 12.2–100%b
  Heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) Viral heterogeneity Sequencing/phylogenetic analysis Dual infection Deletions in env create problems 0–19% c
  Degenerate base count in RT Viral heterogeneity Sequencing/phylogenetic analysis Dual infection   ≥ 40% d
  Multi-region hybridization assay (MHA) Different subtypes only None Dual infection Different subtypes only Not determined
  No pre-selection - Sequencing/phylogenetic analysis Dual infection Low throughput Low (≤ 1%)
Serial samples Increase in viral load (VL) - Sequencing/phylogenetic analysis Superinfection Multiple factors increase VL 14–40% e
  No pre-selection - Sequencing/phylogenetic analysis Superinfection Low throughput Low (≤ 1%)
  1. a Defined as the percentage of dual infections detected/samples pre-selected as estimated from published studies.
  2. b HIV-1 group M/O dual infections only; Vergne et al. and Yamaguchi et al [65,66].
  3. c Manigart et al., Grobler et al., and Courgnaud et al. [34,60,72].
  4. d Cornelissen et al. [73].
  5. e Yerly et al. and Jurriaans et al. [31,59].