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Table 3 Human genes modulating HIV pathogenesis by influencing post-entry steps of the viral life cycle

From: Host factors influencing susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS progression

Gene Allele or factor Mode Effect Mechanism of action Frequency(1) References
CypA (PP1A) 1650 G Recessive Delay AIDS Unknown Unknown 12
TRIM5α Haplotype 9   Increase HIV transmission Unknown Caucasians (1%) 182
TRIM5α 136Q Dominant Protect against HIV infection 136Q variant displays stronger anti-HIV activity African Americans (20%) 183
TRIM5α 43Y Dominant Protect against HIV infection Unknown African Americans (6.5%) 183
APOBEC3G 186R Recessive Accelerate AIDS Unknown African Americans (36.7%) 206
APOBEC3G C40693T Unknown Increase HIV transmission Unknown (variant found in intronic region) Caucasians (< 1%) 208
Cullin5 SNP6 A/G Dominant (additive) Accelerated CD4 T cell depletion and AIDS progression Unknown (the SNP6 G product displays stronger binding to nuclear proteins Africans (5%)(2) 210
TSG101 -183C Dominant Accelerated CD4 T cell decline Increase virus budding? (paradoxically the -183C variant reduces replication in ex-vivo systems) Caucasians (17%) 12, 229
  1. (1) Allele frequency in populations in which the variant is more predominant. (2) Higher allele frequencies are observed in European Americans (10%) and Chinese (20%), however the correlation is not observed in these populations.