Skip to main content

Table 2 Anti-HIV activity of human defensins

From: Host factors influencing susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS progression

Defensins Regulation Cell Source Mechanisms References
HNP1, HNP2, and HNP3 Constitutive HPN2 may be the product of proteolytic processing of HNP1/HPN3 Neutrophils and promyelocytes • CD4 down-modulation
• Viral membrane disruption and binding to CD4 and gp120 (in absence of serum)
• Upregulation of CC-chemokines in macrophages
• Block of nuclear transport (by HNP1)
131, 143, 146
HNP4 Constitutive Neutrophils • Unknown (lectin-independent mechanism) 135
HBD2 and HBD3 Inducible by HIV, opportunistic infections, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1B) Epithelial cells, monocytes, monocytes-derived DCs, macrophages, and keratinocytes • Viral membrane disruption (absence of serum)
• CXCR4 down-modulation
• CCR6-mediated chemotactic effects
Retrocyclins (RTD1, RTD2) Synthesis blocked in humans by premature termination codon RNA transcripts, not protein, expressed in bone marrow • Prevent HIV entry by binding to CD4 and gp120 138–140