Effect of IN mutants on HIV-1 proviral DNA integration. Dividing C8166 T cells were infected with equal amounts of different HIV-1 IN mutant viruses. At 24 hours post-infection, 1 × 106 cells were lysed and serial-diluted cell lysates were analyzed by two-step Alu-PCR and Southern blot for specific detection of integrated proviral DNA from infected cells (Upper panel). The DNA content of each lysis sample was also monitored by PCR detection of human β-globin DNA and visualized by specific Southern blot (middle panel). The serial-diluted ACH-2 cell lysates were analyzed for integrated viral DNA and as quantitative control (lower panel). The results are representative for two independent experiments.