IPA Comparison analysis of gene array data. IPA comparison analysis was completed comparing Ag to Ag + Ant to Ant treatments. Displayed are molecular and cellular functions and physiological system development functions that are associated with cellular signaling and function and proliferation (A). Each pair of bars displays the most significantly associated function within that category that is over-represented in the dataset. The larger the bar, the more strongly over-represented those functions were in the dataset. The p-values were determined by right-tailed Fisher’s exact test with a p < 0.05 considered significant. Only over-represented functions or ones that have more associated molecules than those are expected by chance are significant. Activation z-scores (calculated as described) for the 10 functions listed in Figure 6 that were associated with T cell signaling and function are displayed (B). The p-values were determined by One-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test. *p < 0.05, **p < .01, ***p < .005.