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Figure 2 | Retrovirology

Figure 2

From: Distinct HIV-1 entry phenotypes are associated with transmission, subtype specificity, and resistance to broadly neutralizing antibodies

Figure 2

Defining the limiting parameters of sensitivity vector metrics used for profiling HIV-1 entry efficiency. (A) Infectivity of a primary subtype B R5-virus monitored across 25 distinct combinations of CD4 and CCR5 expression levels. The normalized infectivity profile is shown as a 3-D bar graph with the luciferase activity obtained at the highest CD4 and CCR5 induction level set at 100%. (B-C) The surface function F(x, y) is used to fit the infectivity data as previously described [34]. The resulting 3-D surface plot can be represented by three metrics that reflect distinct phenotypic properties of the infecting virus envelope: (B) the mean infectivity level (M), and (C) the angle (θ) and amplitude (Δ) of the sensitivity vector S that describes the envelope’s response to varying levels of CD4 and CCR5. For clarity, the operational definitions of these metrics, and what they measure with respect to the infectious phenotype of Env, are also indicated. Note that while we have changed the nomenclature of these Affinofile metrics to more intuitively reflect the Env properties they are intended to describe, the fundamental definitions are the same as in Johnston et al. (Ref [34]). Thus, “mean induction” is now termed “mean infectivity”, and vector “magnitude” is now termed vector “amplitude”.

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