Expression and activation of the inflammasome in primary human CNS cells. Isolated primary human cells including microglia (A), astrocytes (B) and neurons (C) were immunolabelled with antibodies to Iba-1, GFAP and MAP-2, respectively, to verify the purity of cell cultures. D. Qualitative RT-PCR showing transcript expression of caspase-1 as well as various inflammasome-forming cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors in primary cultured human microglia, astrocytes and neurons. E. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR showing the relative fold change in inflammasome-associated gene expression in cultured primary human microglia and astrocytes. Bars indicate standard error. F. Protein expression of IL-1β and caspase-1 in primary human microglia but not astrocytes. G. IL-1β release from Mock-or LPS-primed (10 ng/mL, 6 hr) primary human microglia followed by ATP stimulation (5 mM, 1 hr). Mean values are reported. Bars indicate standard error.