The effect of CypA KD in AKATA cells on HIV-1 transduction. (A) CypA level in AKATA cells transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing an shRNA targeting CypA, or control (Ctrl). Cell lysates were probed in western blot with antibodies against β-actin (upper panel) or CypA (lower panel). CypA and Ctrl KD AKATA cells were challenged with WT or CA mutant HIV-1 reporter viruses. 72 hours later GFP expression was assessed by flow cytometry (B). 24 hrs after infection, late reverse transcription (C), or 2-LTR circles (D), were assayed by quantitative PCR. Data represent one of at least three independent experiments. Error bars represent ± SEM (n = 3).