Latent HIV infection of human resting CD4+T cells in TOM and human PB. The frequency of latently infected resting CD4+ T cells was measured in resting CD4+ T cells isolated from ART-suppressed TOM and PB of suppressed patients that initiated treatment during acute or chronic phases of HIV-1 infection via co-culture of resting cells. A) Diagram depicting the resting cell co-culture assay to detect p24 expression after maximal stimulation with PHA. B) Comparison of the number of resting HIV infected cells between humanized mice and humans during the acute or chronic phase of infection. The number of infected resting cells in the individual mice was estimated using a maximum likelihood method and values reported in infectious units per million resting cells (IUPM).