Inter-subtype comparison of Nef-mediated CD4 and HLA-I downregulation capacities in a subset of individuals matched for plasma viral load and CD4 count. Panels A and B : CD4 (A) and HLA-A*02 (B) downregulation activities of subtype A (red), B (orange), C (green) and D (blue) patient-derived Nef clones from selected individuals matched for patient plasma viral loads and CD4 counts are shown (n = 30 per subtype). Bars and whiskers represent the median and inter-quartile ranges, respectively. Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn’s post-hoc tests were used to compare Nef functions between subtypes. The Kruskal-Wallis p-value is shown and significant differences between individual subtypes are indicated by asterisks; p < 0.05 (*), p < 0.01 (**) and p < 0.001 (***).