Relationship between host HLA-B*57 expression and Nef activities in EC. Scatterplots are shown depicting the ability of EC-derived Nefs from B*57-expressing (closed red circles) and non-B*57 expressing (open red circles) to enhance virion infectivity (panel A), enhance viral replication in PBMC (panel B; data depict means for all four PBMC donors), down-regulate HLA-I (panel C), up-regulate CD74 (panel D) and down-regulate CD4 (panel E). All results are normalized to NefSF2. Bars represent median and interquartile ranges. P-values were calculated using Mann–Whitney U-test.