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  1. Content type: Research

    SAM domain and HD domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a host anti-HIV-1 restriction factor known to suppress viral reverse transcription in nondividing myeloid cells by its dNTP triphosphorylase activity t...

    Authors: Bijan Mahboubi, Christina Gavegnano, Dong-Hyun Kim, Raymond F. Schinazi and Baek Kim

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:69

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  2. Content type: Research

    Current antiretroviral therapy is effective in controlling HIV-1 infection. However, cessation of therapy is associated with rapid return of viremia from the viral reservoir. Eradicating the HIV-1 reservoir ha...

    Authors: Catalina Méndez, Scott Ledger, Kathy Petoumenos, Chantelle Ahlenstiel and Anthony D. Kelleher

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:67

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  3. Content type: Research

    There is a constant need to improve antiretrovirals against HIV since therapy is limited by cost, side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. Kudzu is a climbing vine from which the root extract (Pueraria ...

    Authors: S. Mediouni, J. A. Jablonski, S. Tsuda, A. Richard, C. Kessing, M. V. Andrade, A. Biswas, Y. Even, T. Tellinghuisen, H. Choe, M. Cameron, M. Stevenson and S. T. Valente

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:64

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  4. Content type: Research

    Despite the low level of viral replication in HIV controllers (HICs), studies have reported viral mutations related to escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in HIV-1 plasma sequences. Thus, evaluat...

    Authors: Diogo Gama Caetano, Fernanda Heloise Côrtes, Gonzalo Bello, Sylvia Lopes Maia Teixeira, Brenda Hoagland, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea Gonçalves Veloso, Monick Lindenmeyer Guimarães and Mariza Gonçalves Morgado

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:62

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  5. Content type: Review

    As increasing numbers of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against HIV-1 enter clinical trials, it is becoming evident that combinations of mAbs are necessary to block infection by the diverse ...

    Authors: Neal N. Padte, Jian Yu, Yaoxing Huang and David D. Ho

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:60

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  6. Content type: Review

    Retroviral integration into germline DNA can result in the formation of a vertically inherited proviral sequence called an endogenous retrovirus (ERV). Over the course of their evolution, vertebrate genomes ha...

    Authors: Robert J. Gifford, Jonas Blomberg, John M. Coffin, Hung Fan, Thierry Heidmann, Jens Mayer, Jonathan Stoye, Michael Tristem and Welkin E. Johnson

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:59

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  7. Content type: Research

    Increased transcription of the human endogenous retrovirus group HERV-K (HML-2) is often seen during disease. Although the mechanism of its tissue-specific activation is unclear, research shows that LTR CpG hy...

    Authors: Meagan Montesion, Zachary H. Williams, Ravi P. Subramanian, Charlotte Kuperwasser and John M. Coffin

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:57

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  8. Content type: Research

    Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are recommended for first-line HIV therapy based on their relatively high genetic barrier to resistance. Although raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir (EVG) resistan...

    Authors: Maureen Oliveira, Ruxandra-Ilinca Ibanescu, Kaitlin Anstett, Thibault Mésplède, Jean-Pierre Routy, Marjorie A. Robbins and Bluma G. Brenner

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:56

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  9. Content type: Review

    The induction of HIV-1-specific antibodies that can neutralize a broad number of isolates is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccination strategies. However, to date no candidate HIV-1 vaccine has successfully elicited ...

    Authors: Eirini Moysi, Constantinos Petrovas and Richard A. Koup

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:54

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  10. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 Env gp160 is cleaved to form gp120 and gp41 and the functional HIV-1 Env is a trimer of non-covalently associated heterodimeric subunits, gp120 and gp41. The cleaved, native, trimeric form of Envs expose...

    Authors: Sweety Samal, Supratik Das, Saikat Boliar, Huma Qureshi, Tripti Shrivastava, Naresh Kumar, Sandeep Goswami, Manish Bansal and Bimal K. Chakrabarti

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:50

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  11. Content type: Research

    Semen is a critical vector for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual transmission and harbors seminal amyloid fibrils that can markedly enhance HIV infection. Semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEV...

    Authors: Ruxia Ren, Shuwen Yin, Baolong Lai, Lingzhen Ma, Jiayong Wen, Xuanxuan Zhang, Fangyuan Lai, Shuwen Liu and Lin Li

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:49

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  12. Content type: Research

    Nuclear localization of Gag is a property shared by many retroviruses and retrotransposons. The importance of this stage for retroviral replication is still unknown, but studies on the Rous Sarcoma virus indic...

    Authors: Joris Paris, Joëlle Tobaly-Tapiero, Marie-Lou Giron, Julien Burlaud-Gaillard, Florence Buseyne, Philippe Roingeard, Pascale Lesage, Alessia Zamborlini and Ali Saïb

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:48

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  13. Content type: Research

    The ability of HIV-1 to integrate into the genomes of quiescent host immune cells, establishing a long-lived latent viral reservoir (LVR), is the primary obstacle to curing these infections. Quantitative viral...

    Authors: Art F. Y. Poon, Jessica L. Prodger, Briana A. Lynch, Jun Lai, Steven J. Reynolds, Jingo Kasule, Adam A. Capoferri, Susanna L. Lamers, Christopher W. Rodriguez, Daniel Bruno, Stephen F. Porcella, Craig Martens, Thomas C. Quinn and Andrew D. Redd

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:47

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  14. Content type: Research

    Co-infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J and reticuloendotheliosis virus induces synergistic pathogenic effects and increases mortality. However, the role of exosomal miRNAs in the molecular mechanism...

    Authors: Defang Zhou, Jingwen Xue, Shuhai He, Xusheng Du, Jing Zhou, Chengui Li, Libo Huang, Venugopal Nair, Yongxiu Yao and Ziqiang Cheng

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:45

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  15. Content type: Research

    Development of AIDS vaccines for effective prevention of circulating HIV-1 is required, but no trial has demonstrated definitive effects on the prevention. Several recent T-cell vaccine trials showed no protec...

    Authors: Hayato Murakoshi, Chengcheng Zou, Nozomi Kuse, Tomohiro Akahoshi, Takayuki Chikata, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Shinichi Oka, Tomáš Hanke and Masafumi Takiguchi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:46

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  16. Content type: Research

    Viral reprogramming of host cells enhances replication and is initiated by viral interaction with the cell surface. Upon human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) binding to CD4+ T cells, a signal transduction cascad...

    Authors: Danica D. Wiredja, Caroline O. Tabler, Daniela M. Schlatzer, Ming Li, Mark R. Chance and John C. Tilton

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:44

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  17. Content type: Research

    The ability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to form a stable viral reservoir is the major obstacle to an HIV-1 cure and post-transcriptional events contribute to the maintenance of viral latency...

    Authors: Shringar Rao, Raquel Amorim, Meijuan Niu, Abdelkrim Temzi and Andrew J. Mouland

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:42

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  18. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 transcription activator protein Tat is phosphorylated in vitro by CDK2 and DNA-PK on Ser-16 residue and by PKR on Tat Ser-46 residue. Here we analyzed Tat phosphorylation in cultured cells and its functi...

    Authors: Andrey Ivanov, Xionghao Lin, Tatiana Ammosova, Andrey V. Ilatovskiy, Namita Kumari, Hatajai Lassiter, Nowah Afangbedji, Xiaomei Niu, Michael G. Petukhov and Sergei Nekhai

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:39

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  19. Content type: Research

    Hosts are able to restrict viral replication to contain virus spread before adaptive immunity is fully initiated. Many viruses have acquired genes directly counteracting intrinsic restriction mechanisms. This ...

    Authors: Carmen Ledesma-Feliciano, Sarah Hagen, Ryan Troyer, Xin Zheng, Esther Musselman, Dragana Slavkovic Lukic, Ann-Mareen Franke, Daniel Maeda, Jörg Zielonka, Carsten Münk, Guochao Wei, Sue VandeWoude and Martin Löchelt

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:38

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  20. Content type: Research

    Different classes of latency reversing agents (LRAs) are being evaluated to measure their effects in reactivating HIV replication from latently infected cells. A limited number of studies have demonstrated add...

    Authors: Georges Khoury, Talia M. Mota, Shuang Li, Carolin Tumpach, Michelle Y. Lee, Jonathan Jacobson, Leigh Harty, Jenny L. Anderson, Sharon R. Lewin and Damian F. J. Purcell

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:36

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  21. Content type: Short report

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 infection, triggered by the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. The transforming activity an...

    Authors: Rita Hleihel, Behzad Khoshnood, Ingrid Dacklin, Hayssam Omran, Carine Mouawad, Zeina Dassouki, Marwan El-Sabban, Margret Shirinian, Caroline Grabbe and Ali Bazarbachi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:33

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  22. Content type: Research

    The apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) gene family appears only in mammalian genomes. Some A3 proteins can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentivir...

    Authors: Yoriyuki Konno, Shumpei Nagaoka, Izumi Kimura, Keisuke Yamamoto, Yumiko Kagawa, Ryuichi Kumata, Hirofumi Aso, Mahoko Takahashi Ueda, So Nakagawa, Tomoko Kobayashi, Yoshio Koyanagi and Kei Sato

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:31

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  23. Content type: Review

    Among the different markers of HIV persistence in infected cells, total HIV DNA is to date the most widely used. It allows an overall quantification of all viral forms of HIV DNA in infected cells, each playin...

    Authors: Christine Rouzioux and Véronique Avettand-Fenoël

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:30

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  24. Content type: Research

    The native pre-fusion structure of gp120/gp41 complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was recently revealed. In the model, the helices of gp41 (α6, α7, α8, and α9) form a four-helix collar underneath trime...

    Authors: Dehua Liu, Hongyun Wang, Mizuki Yamamoto, Jiping Song, Rui Zhang, Qingling Du, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Jun-ichiro Inoue and Zene Matsuda

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:27

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  25. Content type: Research

    The InterFeron Induced TransMembrane (IFITM) proteins are interferon stimulated genes that restrict many viruses, including HIV-1. SAMHD1 is another restriction factor blocking replication of HIV-1 and other v...

    Authors: Ferdinand Roesch, Molly OhAinle and Michael Emerman

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:26

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  26. Content type: Research

    NSC260594, a quinolinium derivative from the NCI diversity set II compound library, was previously identified in a target-based assay as an inhibitor of the interaction between the HIV-1 (ψ) stem-loop 3 (SL3) ...

    Authors: Carin K. Ingemarsdotter, Jingwei Zeng, Ziqi Long, Andrew M.L. Lever and Julia C. Kenyon

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:25

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  27. Content type: Research

    The initial envelope (Env)-specific antibody response in acutely HIV-1-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs) is dominated by non-neutralizing antibodies tar...

    Authors: Quang N. Nguyen, David R. Martinez, Jonathon E. Himes, R. Whitney Edwards, Qifeng Han, Amit Kumar, Riley Mangan, Nathan I. Nicely, Guanhua Xie, Nathan Vandergrift, Xiaoying Shen, Justin Pollara and Sallie R. Permar

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:24

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  28. Content type: Review

    Antiretroviral therapy cannot cure HIV-1 infection due to the persistence of a small number of latently infected cells harboring replication-competent proviruses. Measuring persistent HIV-1 is challenging, as ...

    Authors: Zheng Wang, Francesco R. Simonetti, Robert F. Siliciano and Gregory M. Laird

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:21

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