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  1. Review

    A conflict of interest: the evolutionary arms race between mammalian APOBEC3 and lentiviral Vif

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins are mammalian-specific cellular deaminases and have a robust ability to restrain lentivirus replication. To antagonize APOBE...

    Yusuke Nakano, Hirofumi Aso, Andrew Soper, Eri Yamada, Miyu Moriwaki, Guillermo Juarez-Fernandez, Yoshio Koyanagi and Kei Sato

    Retrovirology 2017 14:31

    Published on: 8 May 2017

  2. Editorial

    Professor Mark Wainberg

    Monsef Benkirane, Ben Berkhout, Persephone Borrow, Ariberto Fassati, Masahiro Fujii, J. Victor Garcia, Paul Gorry, Andrew Lever, Johnson Mak, Monique Nijhuis, Klaus Strebel, Francois Venter and Robin Weiss

    Retrovirology 2017 14:30

    Published on: 5 May 2017

  3. Research

    Highly divergent patterns of genetic diversity and evolution in proviral quasispecies from HIV controllers

    Ongoing intra-host HIV-1 evolution has been shown in individuals that naturally suppress the viremia to low levels (HIV controllers) by the analysis of the RNA in plasma compartment. Detection of evolution at ...

    Suwellen S. D. de Azevedo, Diogo Gama Caetano, Fernanda H. Côrtes, Sylvia L. M. Teixeira, Karina dos Santos Silva, Brenda Hoagland, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea G. Veloso, Mariza G. Morgado and Gonzalo Bello

    Retrovirology 2017 14:29

    Published on: 2 May 2017

  4. Short report

    Interference of retroviral envelope with vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses is relieved by co-administration of cytokine-encoding vectors

    Retroviral envelope (Env) proteins are known to exhibit immunosuppressive properties, which become apparent not only in retroviral infections, but also in gene-based immunizations using retroviral immunogens, ...

    Nadine Bongard, Dennis Lapuente, Sonja Windmann, Ulf Dittmer, Matthias Tenbusch and Wibke Bayer

    Retrovirology 2017 14:28

    Published on: 27 April 2017

  5. Research

    Effects of host restriction factors and the HTLV-1 subtype on susceptibility to HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Although human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a prerequisite for the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), specific provirus mutations in HAM/TS...

    Satoshi Nozuma, Eiji Matsuura, Daisuke Kodama, Yuichi Tashiro, Toshio Matsuzaki, Ryuji Kubota, Shuji Izumo and Hiroshi Takashima

    Retrovirology 2017 14:26

    Published on: 19 April 2017

  6. Short report

    Type I interferon signaling is required for the APOBEC3/Rfv3-dependent neutralizing antibody response but not innate retrovirus restriction

    APOBEC3/Rfv3 restricts acute Friend retrovirus (FV) infection and promotes virus-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Classical Rfv3 studies utilized FV stocks containing lactate-dehydrogenase eleva...

    Bradley S. Barrett, Michael S. Harper, Sean T. Jones, Kejun Guo, Karl J. Heilman, Ross M. Kedl, Kim J. Hasenkrug and Mario L. Santiago

    Retrovirology 2017 14:25

    Published on: 17 April 2017

  7. Short report

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine MHC region of Japanese Black cattle are associated with bovine leukemia virus proviral load

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma that has spread worldwide and causes serious problems for the cattle industry. The BLV proviral load,...

    Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Shinji Sasaki, Polat Meripet, Yoshikazu Sugimoto and Yoko Aida

    Retrovirology 2017 14:24

    Published on: 4 April 2017

  8. Commentary

    The HIV-1 transmission bottleneck

    It is well established that most new systemic infections of HIV-1 can be traced back to one or a limited number of founder viruses. Usually, these founders are more closely related to minor HIV-1 populations i...

    Samuel Mundia Kariuki, Philippe Selhorst, Kevin K. Ariën and Jeffrey R. Dorfman

    Retrovirology 2017 14:22

    Published on: 23 March 2017

  9. Research

    Inhibition of human endogenous retrovirus-K by antiretroviral drugs

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are genomic sequences of retroviral origin which were believed to be integrated into germline chromosomes millions of years ago and account for nearly 8% of the human geno...

    Richa Tyagi, Wenxue Li, Danelvis Parades, Mario A. Bianchet and Avindra Nath

    Retrovirology 2017 14:21

    Published on: 22 March 2017

  10. Research

    Identification of a tripartite interaction between the N-terminus of HIV-1 Vif and CBFβ that is critical for Vif function

    HIV-1 Vif interacts with the cellular core-binding factor β (CBFβ) and counteracts the protective roles of certain human APOBEC3 (A3) proteins by targeting them for proteasomal degradation. Previous studies ha...

    Belete A. Desimmie, Jessica L. Smith, Hiroshi Matsuo, Wei-Shau Hu and Vinay K. Pathak

    Retrovirology 2017 14:19

    Published on: 17 March 2017

  11. Research

    DNA hypomethylation and aberrant expression of the human endogenous retrovirus ERVWE1/syncytin-1 in seminomas

    Syncytin-1 and 2, human fusogenic glycoproteins encoded by the env genes of the endogenous retroviral loci ERVWE1 and ERVFRDE1, respectively, contribute to the differentiation of multinucleated syncytiotropho...

    Martina Benešová, Kateřina Trejbalová, Denisa Kovářová, Zdenka Vernerová, Tomáš Hron, Dana Kučerová and Jiří Hejnar

    Retrovirology 2017 14:20

    Published on: 17 March 2017

  12. Research

    A mature macrophage is a principal HIV-1 cellular reservoir in humanized mice after treatment with long acting antiretroviral therapy

    Despite improved clinical outcomes seen following antiretroviral therapy (ART), resting CD4+ T cells continue to harbor latent human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1). However, such cells are not likely ...

    Mariluz Araínga, Benson Edagwa, R. Lee Mosley, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Santhi Gorantla and Howard E. Gendelman

    Retrovirology 2017 14:17

    Published on: 9 March 2017

  13. Short report

    Prototype foamy virus elicits complete autophagy involving the ER stress-related UPR pathway

    Prototype foamy virus (PFV) is a member of the Spumaretrovirinae subfamily of retroviruses, which maintains lifelong latent infection while being nonpathogenic to their natural hosts. Autophagy is a cell-progr...

    Peipei Yuan, Lanlan Dong, Qingqing Cheng, Shuang Wang, Zhi Li, Yan Sun, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He and Wanhong Liu

    Retrovirology 2017 14:16

    Published on: 7 March 2017

  14. Research

    Spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV-1 transmission in France (1999–2014) and impact of targeted prevention strategies

    Characterizing HIV-1 transmission networks can be important in understanding the evolutionary patterns and geospatial spread of the epidemic. We reconstructed the broad molecular epidemiology of HIV from indiv...

    Antoine Chaillon, Asma Essat, Pierre Frange, Davey M. Smith, Constance Delaugerre, Francis Barin, Jade Ghosn, Gilles Pialoux, Olivier Robineau, Christine Rouzioux, Cécile Goujard, Laurence Meyer and Marie-Laure Chaix

    Retrovirology 2017 14:15

    Published on: 21 February 2017

  15. Research

    Immune regulator ABIN1 suppresses HIV-1 transcription by negatively regulating the ubiquitination of Tat

    A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB activation (ABIN1), an important immune regulator, was previously shown to be involved in HIV-1 replication. However, the reported studies done with overexpressed ABIN1 provided ...

    Shiyou Chen, Xiaodan Yang, Weijia Cheng, Yuhong Ma, Yafang Shang, Liu Cao, Shuliang Chen, Yu Chen, Min Wang and Deyin Guo

    Retrovirology 2017 14:12

    Published on: 13 February 2017

  16. Research

    Induction of complex immune responses and strong protection against retrovirus challenge by adenovirus-based immunization depends on the order of vaccine delivery

    In the Friend retrovirus mouse model we developed potent adenovirus-based vaccines that were designed to induce either strong Friend virus GagL85–93-specific CD8+ T cell or antibody responses, respectively. To op...

    Meike Kaulfuß, Ina Wensing, Sonja Windmann, Camilla Patrizia Hrycak and Wibke Bayer

    Retrovirology 2017 14:8

    Published on: 6 February 2017

  17. Research

    Toll-like receptor 3 activation selectively reverses HIV latency in microglial cells

    Multiple toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in cells of the monocytic lineage, including microglia, which constitute the major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the brain. We ...

    David Alvarez-Carbonell, Yoelvis Garcia-Mesa, Stephanie Milne, Biswajit Das, Curtis Dobrowolski, Roxana Rojas and Jonathan Karn

    Retrovirology 2017 14:9

    Published on: 6 February 2017

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