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  1. Research

    Toll-like receptor 3 activation selectively reverses HIV latency in microglial cells

    Multiple toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in cells of the monocytic lineage, including microglia, which constitute the major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the brain. We ...

    David Alvarez-Carbonell, Yoelvis Garcia-Mesa, Stephanie Milne, Biswajit Das, Curtis Dobrowolski, Roxana Rojas and Jonathan Karn

    Retrovirology 2017 14:9

    Published on: 6 February 2017

  2. Research

    Identification of small molecule modulators of HIV-1 Tat and Rev protein accumulation

    HIV-1 replication is critically dependent upon controlled processing of its RNA and the activities provided by its encoded regulatory factors Tat and Rev. A screen of small molecule modulators of RNA processin...

    Ahalya Balachandran, Raymond Wong, Peter Stoilov, Sandy Pan, Benjamin Blencowe, Peter Cheung, P. Richard Harrigan and Alan Cochrane

    Retrovirology 2017 14:7

    Published on: 26 January 2017

  3. Research

    Breast milk and in utero transmission of HIV-1 select for envelope variants with unique molecular signatures

    Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) poses a serious health threat in developing countries, and adequate interventions are as yet unrealized. HIV-1 infection is frequentl...

    Kyle J. Nakamura, Laura Heath, Edwin R. Sobrera, Thomas A. Wilkinson, Katherine Semrau, Chipepo Kankasa, Nicole H. Tobin, Nicholas E. Webb, Benhur Lee, Donald M. Thea, Louise Kuhn, James I. Mullins and Grace M. Aldrovandi

    Retrovirology 2017 14:6

    Published on: 26 January 2017

  4. Research

    HIV signaling through CD4 and CCR5 activates Rho family GTPases that are required for optimal infection of primary CD4+ T cells

    HIV-1 hijacks host cell machinery to ensure successful replication, including cytoskeletal components for intracellular trafficking, nucleoproteins for pre-integration complex import, and the ESCRT pathway for...

    Mark B. Lucera, Zach Fleissner, Caroline O. Tabler, Daniela M. Schlatzer, Zach Troyer and John C. Tilton

    Retrovirology 2017 14:4

    Published on: 24 January 2017

  5. Research

    Evidence against a role for jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus in human lung cancer

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a contagious lung cancer in sheep and goats that can be transmitted by aerosols produced by infected animals. Virus entry into cells is initiated by binding of the vir...

    A. Dusty Miller, Marcelo De las Heras, Jingyou Yu, Fushun Zhang, Shan-Lu Liu, Andrew E. Vaughan, Thomas L. Vaughan, Raul Rosadio, Stefano Rocca, Giuseppe Palmieri, James J. Goedert, Junya Fujimoto and Ignacio I. Wistuba

    Retrovirology 2017 14:3

    Published on: 20 January 2017

  6. Research

    HIV integration sites in latently infected cell lines: evidence of ongoing replication

    Assessing the location and frequency of HIV integration sites in latently infected cells can potentially inform our understanding of how HIV persists during combination antiretroviral therapy. We developed a n...

    Jori Symons, Abha Chopra, Eva Malatinkova, Ward De Spiegelaere, Shay Leary, Don Cooper, Chike O. Abana, Ajantha Rhodes, Simin D. Rezaei, Linos Vandekerckhove, Simon Mallal, Sharon R. Lewin and Paul U. Cameron

    Retrovirology 2017 14:2

    Published on: 13 January 2017

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2017 14:23

  7. Research

    Multiple HIV-1/M + HIV-1/O dual infections and new HIV-1/MO inter-group recombinant forms detected in Cameroon

    Due to the prevalence of HIV-1 group M and the endemicity of HIV-1 group O infections in Cameroon, patients may be infected with both viruses and/or with HIV-1/MO recombinant forms. Such atypical infections m...

    Fabienne De Oliveira, Thomas Mourez, Aurélia Vessiere, Paul-Alain Ngoupo, Elodie Alessandri-Gradt, François Simon, Dominique Rousset and Jean-Christophe Plantier

    Retrovirology 2017 14:1

    Published on: 13 January 2017

  8. Research

    Mechanistic differences between HIV-1 and SIV nucleocapsid proteins and cross-species HIV-1 genomic RNA recognition

    The nucleocapsid (NC) domain of HIV-1 Gag is responsible for specific recognition and packaging of genomic RNA (gRNA) into new viral particles. This occurs through specific interactions between the Gag NC doma...

    Klara Post, Erik D. Olson, M. Nabuan Naufer, Robert J. Gorelick, Ioulia Rouzina, Mark C. Williams, Karin Musier-Forsyth and Judith G. Levin

    Retrovirology 2016 13:89

    Published on: 29 December 2016

  9. Research

    A genotypic method for determining HIV-2 coreceptor usage enables epidemiological studies and clinical decision support

    CCR5-coreceptor antagonists can be used for treating HIV-2 infected individuals. Before initiating treatment with coreceptor antagonists, viral coreceptor usage should be determined to ensure that the virus ca...

    Matthias Döring, Pedro Borrego, Joachim Büch, Andreia Martins, Georg Friedrich, Ricardo Jorge Camacho, Josef Eberle, Rolf Kaiser, Thomas Lengauer, Nuno Taveira and Nico Pfeifer

    Retrovirology 2016 13:85

    Published on: 20 December 2016

  10. Review

    Are T cells the only HIV-1 reservoir?

    Current antiretroviral therapies have improved the duration and quality of life of people living with HIV-1. However, viral reservoirs impede complete eradication of the virus. Although there are many strategi...

    Abraham Joseph Kandathil, Sho Sugawara and Ashwin Balagopal

    Retrovirology 2016 13:86

    Published on: 20 December 2016

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2017 14:11

  11. Research

    Janus kinase inhibition suppresses PKC-induced cytokine release without affecting HIV-1 latency reversal ex vivo

    Despite the durable viral suppression afforded by antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 eradication will require strategies to target latently infected cells that persist in infected individuals. Protein kinase C (PKC...

    Adam M. Spivak, Erin T. Larragoite, McKenna L. Coletti, Amanda B. Macedo, Laura J. Martins, Alberto Bosque and Vicente Planelles

    Retrovirology 2016 13:88

    Published on: 20 December 2016

  12. Research

    Ultrasensitive single-genome sequencing: accurate, targeted, next generation sequencing of HIV-1 RNA

    Although next generation sequencing (NGS) offers the potential for studying virus populations in unprecedented depth, PCR error, amplification bias and recombination during library construction have limited it...

    Valerie F. Boltz, Jason Rausch, Wei Shao, Junko Hattori, Brian Luke, Frank Maldarelli, John W. Mellors, Mary F. Kearney and John M. Coffin

    Retrovirology 2016 13:87

    Published on: 20 December 2016

  13. Research

    First Phase I human clinical trial of a killed whole-HIV-1 vaccine: demonstration of its safety and enhancement of anti-HIV antibody responses

    Vaccination with inactivated (killed) whole-virus particles has been used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases. However, for an HIV vaccine this approach has been largely negated due to inherent safety c...

    Eunsil Choi, Chad J. Michalski, Seung Ho Choo, Gyoung Nyoun Kim, Elizabeth Banasikowska, Sangkyun Lee, Kunyu Wu, Hwa-Yong An, Anthony Mills, Stefan Schneider, U. Fritz Bredeek, Daniel R. Coulston, Shilei Ding, Andrés Finzi, Meijuan Tian, Katja Klein…

    Retrovirology 2016 13:82

    Published on: 28 November 2016

  14. Research

    Membrane bound modified form of clade B Env, JRCSF is suitable for immunogen design as it is efficiently cleaved and displays all the broadly neutralizing epitopes including V2 and C2 domain-dependent conformational epitopes

    Antigenicity of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Envs) of both lab-adapted and primary isolates expressed on the cell surface rarely match with in vitro neutralization of viruses, pseudo-typed with corresponding Envs....

    Supratik Das, Saikat Boliar, Nivedita Mitra, Sweety Samal, Manish Bansal, Wayne C. Koff and Bimal K. Chakrabarti

    Retrovirology 2016 13:81

    Published on: 21 November 2016

  15. Research

    Frequency and Env determinants of HIV-1 subtype C strains from antiretroviral therapy-naive subjects that display incomplete inhibition by maraviroc

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into cells involves the interaction of the viral gp120 envelope glycoproteins (Env) with cellular CD4 and a secondary coreceptor, which is typically one of ...

    Katharina Borm, Martin R. Jakobsen, Kieran Cashin, Jacqueline K. Flynn, Paula Ellenberg, Lars Ostergaard, Benhur Lee, Melissa J. Churchill, Michael Roche and Paul R. Gorry

    Retrovirology 2016 13:74

    Published on: 3 November 2016

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