Influence of sequence identity and unique breakpoints on the frequency of intersubtype HIV-1 recombination
© Baird et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 11 October 2006
Accepted: 12 December 2006
Published: 12 December 2006
HIV-1 recombination between different subtypes has a major impact on the global epidemic. The generation of these intersubtype recombinants follows a defined set of events starting with dual infection of a host cell, heterodiploid virus production, strand transfers during reverse transcription, and then selection. In this study, recombination frequencies were measured in the C1-C4 regions of the envelope gene in the presence (using a multiple cycle infection system) and absence (in vitro reverse transcription and single cycle infection systems) of selection for replication-competent virus. Ugandan subtypes A and D HIV-1 env sequences (115-A, 120-A, 89-D, 122-D, 126-D) were employed in all three assay systems. These subtypes co-circulate in East Africa and frequently recombine in this human population.
Increased sequence identity between viruses or RNA templates resulted in increased recombination frequencies, with the exception of the 115-A virus or RNA template. Analyses of the recombination breakpoints and mechanistic studies revealed that the presence of a recombination hotspot in the C3/V4 env region, unique to 115-A as donor RNA, could account for the higher recombination frequencies with the 115-A virus/template. Single-cycle infections supported proportionally less recombination than the in vitro reverse transcription assay but both systems still had significantly higher recombination frequencies than observed in the multiple-cycle virus replication system. In the multiple cycle assay, increased replicative fitness of one HIV-1 over the other in a dual infection dramatically decreased recombination frequencies.
Sequence variation at specific sites between HIV-1 isolates can introduce unique recombination hotspots, which increase recombination frequencies and skew the general observation that decreased HIV-1 sequence identity reduces recombination rates. These findings also suggest that the majority of intra- or intersubtype A/D HIV-1 recombinants, generated with each round of infection, are not replication-competent and do not survive in the multiple-cycle system. Ability of one HIV-1 isolate to outgrow the other leads to reduced co-infections, heterozygous virus production, and recombination frequencies.
Recombination between two genetically-distinct isolates of the same retrovirus species was first described in 1970[1–3]. Retroviruses carry two copies of genomic RNA within each viral particle. Prior to a recombination event, heterodiploid viruses must be produced from cells co-infected with two different viruses. De novo infection with a heterodiploid retrovirus can then result in generation of recombinant or chimeric genomes catalyzed by reverse transcriptase jumping between genomic RNA templates[4, 5]. Several groups have studied various aspects of these recombination events and have defined various possible models for retrovirus recombination involving synthesis of both the minus and plus strands of retroviral DNA[6–10]. However, increasing evidence suggest that the majority of recombination events occur during synthesis of the minus DNA strand, following a copy choice mechanism. This transfer involves a jumping of the nascent DNA strand from one RNA template to the other, which is guided through local sequence similarity between the two genomic RNAs. Various triggers may be responsible for this template switching such as breaks on the genomic RNA, pause sites for reverse transcription, or particular RNA secondary structures in the viral genome.
The frequency of recombination within the 9.7 kilonucleotides of HIV-1 genome fluctuates between three and thirty recombination events per round of replication and depending on use of various viral genomes and possibly, the cell type for infection[9, 24, 25]. In general, these recombination frequencies are typically derived from experiments employing closely related or even identical parental sequence. Few studies have employed non-subtype B sequences or actual pairs of HIV-1 isolates that recombine and circulate in the epidemic. Two studies have examined intersubtype recombination in the 5' untranslated region[26, 27]. Increased sequence homology and maintenance of dimerization initiation sequence appeared to stimulate intersubtype recombination employing an in vitro reconstituted reverse transcription system and a single cycle replication system.
In this study, we generated recombinants between subtypes A and D in the C1-C4 region of the envelope gene using three different assay systems. Two subtype A and three subtype D primary HIV-1 isolates from Uganda were employed as the "base" virus or env sequence for these recombination frequency analyses. The in vitro reconstituted system (referred to as in vitro system) involves RNA-dependent DNA synthesis catalyzed by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase employing purified RNA templates of subtype A and D env C1-C4 regions. The second assay employs a single cycle tissue culture infection with defective HIV-1 particles (referred to as single cycle system), while the third system requires multiple round infection of susceptible cells with two HIV-1 isolates of subtypes A and/or D (referred to as multiple cycle system). Intra and intersubtype recombination frequencies in the env gene were calculated from all three systems. For the in vitro and single cycle systems, recombination frequency was calculated from the conversion of lac- (parental) to lac+ (recombined) phenotype[29, 30]. In the multiple cycle system, replication-competent parental versus recombined HIV-1 isolates (i.e. in the env gene) were selectively PCR amplified with subtype-specific or isolate-specific primers in order to calculate recombination frequency. In general, increases in genetic diversity between the HIV-1 env gene templates results in decreased recombination frequencies but there are exceptions to this observation. It appears that strong hotspots for recombination can appear with select pairs of HIV-1 isolates and may be dependent of specific nucleotide sequence/structure combinations between donor/acceptor templates. A previous study mapping these recombination breakpoints assisted in our analyses of their impact on intersubytpe recombination frequencies. In vitro analyses were performed to examine the impact of unique recombination hotspot in the C3/V4 region of env.
Intra- and intersubtype recombination frequency after a single cycle of infection
When the 115/89 pair was excluded from the analyses, there was significant correlation between the recombination frequency and sequence identity between donor and acceptor templates (r = 0.87, p < 0.0001; Pearson product moment correlation) (Figure 3C). As described below, we identified a strong hotspot for recombination in the C3 env regionwhen the 115-A was employed as donor template in this single-cycle system (ref). This hotspot for recombination was not observed with any other donor/acceptor template pair and appeared unique to 115-A template as donor. The impact of this 115-A specific hotspot on high recombination frequencies is explored below.
Recombination frequency in vitro
In order to compare the results of the single cycle cell culture assay to an in vitro assay, the same 1100 nucleotide region of the HIV-1 subtype A and D env genes were cloned into pA and pK vectors as previously described. In the cell-free assay outlined in Figure 2B, reverse transcription is primed on the donor RNA in the presence of the acceptor RNA. Presence of a functional lacZ gene indicates a strand transfer from donor to acceptor RNA. As with the assay in cell cultures, the position of template switching in the region of homology is detected by sequence analysis after cloning the products of reverse transcription. Using this in vitro reverse transcription assay, the frequency of recombination with the intersubtype pairs generally ranged from 6–13.8%, with the exception of the A-115/D-89 pair, which had a recombination frequency of 27%. Use of intrasubtype pairs as with the single-cycle system resulted in higher recombination frequencies: 16.7% with D-126/D-122. Again the 115-A/120-A pair was the exception to this observation with a recombination frequency of nearly 30%. Expectedly, the highest recombination frequencies were observed when the same isolate was used in the donor and acceptor RNA templates. The intra-isolate pair D-89/D-89 recombined with a frequency of 22%, and the 120-A/120-A pair recombined with a frequency of 23.5%. As with the single cycle assay there was a significant but proportional increase in recombination frequencies with increasing sequence identity between donor and acceptor templates (Figure 3C). In all cases, the frequency of recombination was higher in the in vitro reconstituted reverse transcription assay than in the single-cycle assay. Increased frequency of recombination in vitro can be misleading considering the inability to reconstitute the conditions of endogenous HIV-1 reverse transcription. Compositions of buffers, concentrations of substrates (e.g. templates and dNTPs), and the amount of reverse transcriptase is optimized for DNA transcription and does not necessarily reflect the actual native components or concentration levels. Equal ratios of acceptor and donor templates were however employed in vitro to mimic in vivo conditions.
Frequency of intersubtype recombination in a multiple cycle assay
A PCR method relying on subtype-specific oligonucleotides was devised  to detect, amplify, and quantify env recombinants in HIV-1 dual infections. In the case of intrasubtype dual infections, it was necessary to design new isolate-specific primers for amplification of recombinant env genes. Amplification of recombinant env genes with subtype or isolate-specific primers was preceded by an external PCR amplification using conserved env primers (Figure 2C). In this experiment, plasmids containing entire env gene of the parental or recombined A/D viruses (pA-env, pD-env, pA/D-env, and pD/A-env) were employed as PCR amplification controls. Briefly, the control plasmids were serially diluted, PCR amplified, and used as standard curves to determine copy number of PCR-amplifed recombined viral RNA molecules derived from the dual infections. This method of quantitative PCR amplification has been previously reported[33, 34]. As expected, the subtype A-specific (or isolate-specific) primers amplified env DNA from pA-env control plasmid, mono-infection and dual infections containing A virus but failed to amplify product from the D mono-infection. Similar findings were obtained with the subtype D-specific primer pair.
To measure the frequency of intra- and intersubtype recombination during multiple rounds of replication, a 10-2 or 10-3 multiplicity of infection (MOI) of the A or D isolates were added in pairs to U87.CD4.CXCR4 cells. Dual infections were monitored each day and when peak reverse transcriptase (RT) activity was detected in the supernatant, virus was harvested and subject to RT-PCR. HIV-1 recombinants and parentals were then PCR amplified with subtype (isolate)-specific primer sets as described above. After correcting for difference in primer annealing and amplification efficiency using the plasmid controls, the copy number of the parental isolates and env recombinants amplified from these dual infections were plotted in Figure 4A (intersubtype competitions/recombinations) and Figure 4B (intrasubtype competitions/recombinations). Based on division of recombined C1-C4 products by the total C1-C4 products (parental plus recombined), we estimated that the frequency of inter- and intra- subtype recombination in the env fragments ranged from 0.25 to 3.4% (Figure 4E). To control for recombination generated by Taq, equal amounts of both pA-env and pD-env plasmids (103 or 106 copies/reaction) were added to PCR amplifications employing the subtype or isolate-specific a-envC1/a-envC4, d-envC1/d-envC4,d-envC1/a-envC4, and a-envC1/d-envC4 primer pairs. Only the a/a and d/d primer pairs could efficiently PCR-amplify the mixture of the pA and pD plasmids . The frequency of recombination catalyzed by Taq was < 0.005%/Kbp, or at least 100-fold less than that generated in dual infections of U87.CD4.CXCR4 cells.
In the multiple cycle assays as with the in vitro and single cycle assays, the recombination frequencies appeared to be proportionally higher with the intrasubtype pairs than with the intersubtype A/D pairs (Figure 4E). However, there was no significant correlation between recombination frequency in the multiple cycle system and sequence identity between virus pairs (data not shown). A marked decrease was observed in the overall recombination rates in the multiple cycle tissue culture assays (range from 0.25 to 3.4%) as compared with the single cycle (4–17%, p < 0.005) or in vitro assays (6–30%, p < 0.001). This decrease in recombination frequencies over multiple rounds of replication appears counterintuitive considering each round of replication of both parental viruses would increase chances of a co-infected cell and of heterodiploid virus production. These heterodiploid viruses are the progenitors of intersubtype (or intra-) recombinants upon de novo infection. Furthermore, the recombined viruses can also produce progeny to infect new cells and expand in culture. This is of course assuming that all recombinants are not defective and are of equal fitness as the parental isolates. Unlike the single cycle assay, the recombined env glycoproteins at the time of virus production will only show functional constraints when infecting a new cell. Thus, it seems unreasonable to assume that all recombined env genes, generated by reverse transcription, will be functional or will mediate host cell entry with equal efficiencies.
Comparing the relative virus production in a dual infection with recombination frequency
Relative production of both viruses in a dual infection can be measured and compared to the frequency of recombination. The env gene is PCR amplified with conserved env primers from the dual infection and then submitted to heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA). Quantitation of the segregated heteroduplexes on the non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels estimates production of each virus from the dual infection. Figure 4C provides an example of the HTA analyses and relative fitness calculation. The fitness difference (WD; left y-axis of Figure 4E) between the two viruses is a ratio of the relative fitness values of the more fit over the less fit virus produced from the dual infection/competition. A fitness difference of 1 suggests equal replicative fitness between the pair of viruses. Relative fitness values in these competitions can also be calculated using the production of each virus (Figure 4C) as measured by quantitative PCR (Figure 4A and 4B). As indicated in Figure 4E, the fitness difference between two HIV-1 isolates in competition as determined by quantitative PCR was nearly identical to those values calculated by HTA. Relative fitness values for this study were derived from dual virus competitions in the U87.CD4.CCR5 cultures. Nearly identical relative fitness values were obtained from competitions in PHA/IL-2 treated PBMCs . For example, the fitness difference between 120-A over 126-D in U87.CD4.CXCR4 cultures was 4.25 and 3.04 in PHA/IL-2 treated PBMC cultures (as determined by HTA) .
When comparing relative fitness (left y-axis, Figure 4E) and recombination frequency (right y-axis), it is quite apparent that the ability of one virus to out compete the other in a dual infection dramatically reduces the frequency of recombination. In contrast, equal fitness of both viruses in cultures results in the highest recombination frequency. For examples, a four-fold increase in virus 120-A over virus 126-D production in a dual infection was associated with recombination frequency of less than 1%/Knt whereas equal fitness of 126-D and 122-D (WD = 1) in a dual infection resulted in a higher frequency of intersubtype recombination (6.5%/Knt). This finding was consistent in all dual infections. Equal replication efficiency in a dual infection (i.e. equal fitness) would result in a higher likelihood that both virus types can co-infect more cells, leading to a greater production of heterozygous virions (containing two different genomes), and thus, a higher frequencies of recombination.
It is important to note that following infection with heterozygous virions, the rate of recombination events in the multiple cycle/dual infection is likely similar to that observed in the single-cycle assay. Over multiple rounds of replication and in the absence of selection, there should be an increase in the amount of dually infected cells, production of heterozygous virions, and as a consequence, the production of recombined viruses. Thus, the apparent reduction in the frequency of recombination (compare multiple to single cycle frequencies, Figure 3B) is likely related to the high proportion of replication defective or dead HIV-1 recombinants following each round of reverse transcription/template switching.
Increased recombination rates with 115-A donor template
To further investigate this C3 recombination site, we analyzed the pausing pattern and template switching frequency in the C3 to V4 regions employing a reconstituted in vitro reverse transcription assay described in Figure 2D. Minus strand DNA synthesis was catalyzed by HIV-1 RT and primed from a radiolabeled primer annealing to the 115-A or 120-A donor RNA template (Figure 5A and 5B, respectively). Template switching to the 89-D template during minus strand DNA synthesis was monitored during a time course assay and in the presence or absence of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) (schematic, Figure 2D). The addition of 5' non-homologous nt's to the 5' end of the donor prevents transfer from the end of the donor and thus, limits transfer to the boxed region in the schematic diagram (Figure 2D). Approximately 50% of the minus strand DNAs were chased to full-length product derived from the donor template (225 nt D product; Figure 5B and 5C). There does appear to be more RT pausing on the 115-A template as compared to the 120-A template during (-) strand DNA synthesis and specifically in the C3 region of the template (indicated in Figure 5B). This pause product was observed when donor template was present or absent in the reaction mixture indicating it originated from the (-) strand DNA synthesis off the 115-A donor tempate. Most of the paused products were eventually elongated during the time course reaction.
A small percentage of minus strand DNA jumped to the acceptor template for continued elongation (245 nt T product; Figure 5B and 5C). Using primers specific for the strand transferred minus strand DNA products, we PCR amplified the recombinants and sequenced 35 clones from the 115-A/89-D assays. Recombination in this reconstituted in vitro assay generally matched those C3-V4 recombination sites observed in the single-cycle assay involving the same pair (data not shown). Interestingly, the presence of NC in the reactions led to an even more pronounced focus of breakpoints in C3 region. NC is known to increase the frequency of recombination, possibly through the destabilization of RNA structures to increase strand invasion and transfer. The frequencies of strand transfer events along these templates were plotted in Figure 5D and 5E. As observed in the in vitro and single cycle assays (Figure 3B), increased sequence identity between donor and acceptor RNA templates appears to augment recombination or strand transfer during reverse transcription. When 115-A RNA was employed as both donor and acceptor, the strand transfer efficiency reached levels of nearly 40% without NC and 60% with NC (Figure 5D). In contrast, transfer efficiency with the donor 115-A/acceptor 89-D intersubtype pair was less than 14% even with NC (Figure 5E). The sequence identities for the 115-A/89-D pair and the 120-A/89-D pair were nearly identical at 0.66% and 0.69, respectively (Figure 3A). However, the transfer efficiency from the 115-A to the 89-D templates was at least 2-fold greater than the transfer efficiency from the 120-A to the 89-D templates. The addition of NC to the reactions proportionally increased transfer efficiency with both template pairs. In other words, increased transfer from 115-A to 89-D than from 120-A to 89-D was apparent throughout the time course with or without NC. These results again suggest that the preferential C3 breakpoint in the 115-A donor template (absent in 120-A donor template) is increasing recombination frequency.
This study has explored the mechanisms of intra- and intersubtype HIV-1 recombination using primary subtype A and D isolates that co-circulate and recombine in Uganda. Retroviral recombination originates from two different virus isolates co-infecting a single cell and then producing heterodiploid retrovirus particles. Upon de novo cell infection, reverse transcriptase jumps between the two heterologous genomes during (-) strand DNA synthesis and creates a chimeric proviral genome. A significant proportion of this recombined progeny may be dead, defective, or less fit than the parental retrovirus isolates. Those recombinants that do survive and compete may have a selective advantage. In terms of the HIV-1 epidemic, the survival and transmission of intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants can represent major antigenic shift and possibly changes in virulence [16, 35]. Within an infected host, recombination is a rapid form of evolution that likely contributes to immune evasion and multi-drug resistance [13, 14].
The mechanisms controlling the generation of intersubtype HIV recombinants are poorly understood but the subject of intense investigation [24–26]. The majority of earlier studies have focused on retroviral recombination in regions presenting a high sequence similarity and not necessarily with HIV or even retroviral sequences [5, 10, 36–40]. In this study, we have employed either primary subtype A and D HIV-1 isolates or their env genes cloned into retroviral/RNA expression vectors. We then compared the frequency of recombination during reverse transcription in vitro, a single cycle infection, and following multiple rounds of virus replication. Both the in vitro and single-cycle system measure RT specificity for strand transfer/recombination in the env gene but do not measure the production or selection of functional envelope glycoproteins. The multiple cycle system involves infecting susceptible cells with two HIV-1 isolates of the same or different subtypes. The frequency of recombination in this system is a function of cell co-infection frequency, heterodiploid virus production, recombination rates within an infected cell, and finally selection of replication-competent and fit intra- or intersubtype recombinants.
Findings from all three assay systems suggest that recombination frequency is significantly reduced with decreasing sequence identity between the virus (or RNA template) pairs, confirming previous observations on intersubtype recombination  and on recombination between HIV-1 templates with engineered sequence diversity[40, 41]. The relationship between recombination frequency and sequence similarity is not an absolute as indicated by intersubtype recombinations involving the subtype A 115 RNA as donor. Concurrent studies have carefully mapped the recombination breakpoints derived from all of these intra- and intersubtype pairs and in all three systems. Increased recombination frequencies when 115A donor RNA was paired with any other acceptor RNA template (subtype A or D) appears related to a unique V4 env "hotspot" for recombination. A reconstituted in vitro reverse transcription system was employed to dissect the mechanism(s) of enhanced strand transfer from the 115-A V4 region. Preliminary data suggests that specific RNA secondary structures in the V4 RNA may have driven this preferential strand transfer and increased recombination frequency. This type of observation may have escaped the attention of earlier reports [9, 24, 40, 42] since the identification of these heterogenous recombination hotspots requires considerable RNA sequence diversity.
The C3/V4 hotspot for recombination may be driven by pausing of reverse transcriptase on the 115A template, which may be absent with the other RNA donor templates. The mechanism for preferential recombination at this V4 stem-loop may be related to that observed at a similar recombination hotspot in the C2 region of env . We are now exploring if a specific signature sequence and RNA structural element was required for the 115-A-mediated strand transfer, as opposed to more random strand transfer from the other HIV-1 RNA templates in this region. A stem-loop structure may be present and promote recombination in the conserved regions of the env genes of multiple HIV-1 subtypes. However, only the appropriate sequence combination can generate similar hairpins in a hypervariable region of the donor and acceptor RNA templates, and as consequence promote preferential recombination. This combination of sequence/structure could also skew the direct relationship between relative sequence identity and recombination frequency.
This study provides the first evidence that HIV-1 subtype A and D isolates, found to co-circulate in Uganda [20, 21, 43], can recombine in tissue culture (ex vivo) but less efficiently than two isolates of the same subtype. As described, selection for replication competent HIV-1 recombinants will likely result in an apparent decrease in recombination frequencies generated in cells infected with a heterozygous virion. In addition, differences in the replicative fitness of the two primary HIV-1 isolates used for co-infection will affect the rate of recombination . Fitness is a complex parameter defined by replication capacity in a given environment . In terms of dual infection of susceptible cells, increased replicative fitness of one HIV-1 isolate over the other reduced the frequency of co-infected cells, heterodiploid virus production, and as a consequence, recombination frequency. It was quite apparent from our results that increased replicative fitness of one HIV-1 isolate over the other in the dual infection reduced recombination frequency. The relevance of this observation can be quite profound on recombination within a dually infected individual considering even modest differences in replicative fitness can dramatically decrease recombination frequency. Within this dually infected individual, fitness differences rather than the genetic differences between the infecting isolates can have a greater impact on recombination.
Regardless of the impact of fitness, recombination frequencies in the multiple cycle system were still 5- to 10-fold less than that observed in the single cycle system. This observation is counter-intuitive due to the expected increase in circulating recombinant forms with ongoing co-infection of cells and recombination. Therefore, it quite reasonable to assume that recombination between diverse HIV-1 env genes can result in non-functional envelope glycoprotein and as a consequence, replication defective or non-viable virus. We are currently examining the proportion of viable, defective, and dead envelopes in the three systems by cloning the products into expression vectors and assessing their function in cell fusion assays. In addition, we are developing a mathematical model that assumes all HIV-1 recombinants are viable in a multiple cycle/dual infection assay. This model accounts for differences in replicative fitness, probability of mono- and dual infections (represented by Poisson distributions), the relative production of homozygous versus heterozygous virions, frequency of recombination (derived from the single cycle assays), and virus progeny production (both parental isolates and recombined viruses). Preliminary data suggests that over 75% of the HIV-1 recombinants in a dual infection are not replication competent and do not contribute to the recombination frequency in the multiple cycle system.
We have shown that the frequency of intra- and intersubtype HIV-1 recombination during reverse transcription is directly related to sequence identity of the parental HIV-1 isolates and is dependent on equal replicative fitness of both isolates in a dual infection. However, the preferential sites of recombination with specific HIV-1 isolates (e.g. at C3 region of 115-A virus) can alter this relationship between sequence identity and recombination frequency. As described, a specific RNA sequence/structure combination between two diverse HIV-1 isolates may result in a unique recombination "hotspot". Following multiple rounds of virus replication, less than 25% of these intra- or intersubtype recombinant genomes (in this case, env genes) are replication competent and survive the competition with parental HIV-1 isolates. These findings suggest that the initial selection of replication competency may preceded the selection based on transmission efficiency, host immune evasion, and many other parameters responsible for shaping the evolution of unique and circulating recombinant forms (URF and CRFs) of HIV-1 isolates found in the epidemic. The impact of selection based on replication efficiency versus the host-mediated selection is now being investigated using Ugandan samples.
293T cells and U87.CD4.CXCR4 cells were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin, and streptomycin (from Invitrogen) and maintained at 37°C with 10% CO2. CD4 and CXCR4 expression in the U87 cell cultures was selected with 300 mg/mL Geneticin (G418) and 1 mg/mL puromycin (Life Technologies, Inc.), respectively. MT4 cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and antibiotics at 37°C with 5% CO2.
Five non-syncytium inducing (NSI) HIV-1 isolates were isolated from HIV-infected Ugandans, characterized for co-receptor usage, and subtyped based on phylogenetic sequence analyses as previously described . Two primary subtype A HIV-1 isolates (115-A and 120-A) and three subtype D strains (89-D, 122-D, and 126-D) were selected. Due to previous confusion in strain nomenclature, we have modified the virus names from that previously published (A14 is now 115-A, A15 = 120-A, D13 = 122-D, D14 = 126-D, and D15 = 89-D) . All HIV-1 isolates were syncytium-inducing (SI) and utilized the CXCR4-coreceptor (X4) for entry . All viral stocks were previously propagated and expanded in PHA-stimulated, IL-2 treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells as described . Tissue culture dose for 50% infectivity (TCID50) was determined for each isolate using the Reed and Muench method , and titers were expressed as infectious units per milliliter (IU/ml) . All the env genes of these HIV-1 isolates have been previously sequenced , aligned, and have the following accession numbers: 115-A, 120-A, 89-D, 122-D, and 126-D.
Single cycle tissue culture assay
Single cycle assays were completed using an assay previously developed by our laboratory [30, 32]. HIV-1 envelope gene fragments from subtypes A and D (HXB2 nt 6420–7520) were PCR amplified from viral DNA and cloned in a pKS-derived Knr/ORI plasmid following standard cloning techniques [32, 47]. As previously described, we have designed two types of plasmids, pLac+ and pLac- plasmids carry, as genetic markers, either a functional LacZ' gene or a sequence complementary to the mRNA coding for Escherichia coli malT gene, respectively. These two genetic markers, lac+ and lac- in their respective plasmids are schematically represented in Figure 2B. All constructions were verified by sequencing. [48, 49]Defective retrovirus particles were produced as described . The medium was replaced 8 h after transfection, and the vector supernatants were recovered 36 h later. Non-internalized DNA was removed by treatment of the vector supernatants with DNaseI (1 μg/ml in the presence of 1 μM MgCl2) for 30 min at 37°C. Amount of p24 present in supernatants was determined by using the HIV-1 p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (PerkinElmer Life Sciences). When necessary, vector supernatants were concentrated by using Centricon® YM-50 centrifugal filter devices (Amicon-Millipore) before transduction.
MT4 cells were transduced with 200 ng of p24 antigen per 106 cells (an approximate multiplicity of infection of 20) in 35-mm dishes in a 500-μl volume. Two hours post-transduction, the cells were diluted up to a 4-ml volume with supplemented RPMI medium and maintained at 37°C in a 5% CO2 incubator for 40 h. The reverse transcription products were purified by Hirt  as described . The purified double stranded DNA was digested with DpnI for 2 h at 37°C (in order to eliminate possible contaminating DNA of bacterial origin) prior to PCR amplification (20 cycles) with primers BH and SH (Figure 2). The amplified product was purified after electrophoresis on agarose gel, digested with PstI and BamHI, ligated into an appropriate plasmid vector and transformed in E.coli. Plating on IPTG/X-Gal containing dishes allowed blue/white screening of recombinant and parental colonies, respectively .
In Vitro recombination assays
In vitro recombination assays were performed using the reconstituted system previously developed in our laboratory . RNA synthesis was performed as previously described . RT purification and activity tests were carried out as described by Canard and colleagues . Constructs used for RNA synthesis were generated following standard cloning procedures. Reverse transcription was carried out on the donor RNA (100 mM) in the presence of an equimolar amount of acceptor RNA after annealing an oligonucleotide specifically onto the donor template. Reverse transcription was started by the addition of HIV-1 RT at a final concentration of 400 nM and carried out for 60 min. Synthesis of the second DNA strand, BamHI and PstI digestion, ligation, and E. coli transformation were carried out as previously described . The frequency of recombination is derived from the rate of blue colonies (recombinant) divided by the sum of blue plus white (parental) colonies.
Measuring the frequency of recombination in the in vitro reverse transcription assay and single-cycle infection assay
To determine the frequency of recombination in the single cycle assay, the total number of blue and white colonies were calculated and applied in the equation as previously described . The frequency of recombination (F) is calcuated by the equation F = b/(2/3 [N(n/48) + b]), where N and b are the total number of white and blue colonies, respectively. The recombination rates per nucleotide (f) within a given interval (i) is given by f = F(x i /X)/z, where F is as above, x i is the number of colonies analyzed where recombination was identified to have occurred within the interval considered, X is the total number of colonies on which mapping was performed, and z is the size in nucleotides of the interval. This takes into account the generation of heterozygous particles as described by the Hardy-Weinberg equation  and the bias introduced into the estimation of the frequency of recombination by cloning reverse transcription products from lac -/- (1/3) relative to lac +/- vectors . For the calculation of the frequency of recombination in heterozygous particles, the total number of colonies must be multiplied by two-thirds. To accurately estimate the frequency of recombination, another factor to take into account is the background among the white colonies derived from cloning of cellular DNA which co-purified with the reverse transcription products. Typically, 48 white colonies are analyzed in each assay and a correction factor is established, given by n/48, where n is the number of colonies resulting from cloning of reverse transcription products (very rare).
HIV-1 dual infection assay
Different pairs of two HIV-1 isolates were used to simultaneously infect PBMC as described previously . We performed four separate dual infections of U87.CXC4.CD4 cells with two HIV-1 isolates at the same multiplicity of infection (i.e. 10-2:10-2 or 10-3:10-3). Virus mixtures were added to adherent U87.CD4.CXCR4 cells (500,000/well) for 2 h at 37°C, 5% CO2 in DMEM complete medium. Supernatants and two aliquots of cells were harvested at peak virus production (typically day 10) as measured by reverse transcriptase activity in the supernatant [46, 55]. Cells were resuspended in 10% DMSO/90% fetal bovine serum, and then stored at -80°C for subsequent analysis.
PCR strategy to amplify HIV-1 recombinants in the multiple cycle assay
For all dual infection experiments, proviral DNA was extracted from lysed PBMC using the QIAamp DNA Blood Kit (Qiagen). A segment of the env genes of HIV-1 genome were PCR amplified using a set of universal primers: envB  – envN  for a ~3 Kbp fragment encoding the gp120 of env. Subtype-specific primers internal to the previous env products were then used to PCR amplify subtype A/D recombinants of using subtype- or isolate-specific primers, a115-envC1 (TAGTGCAGAAAAGCATAATG; a 115-A-specific sense primer), d-envC4 (TGTCAATTTCTCTTTCCCAC; a subtype-D specific antisense primer), a120-envC1 (AAGCATATGATGCAGAAGTAC; a 120-D specific sense primer), d-envC1 (TAAAACAGAGGCACATAATA; a subtype D specific sense primer), and a-envC4 (TGCTAATTTCTTTATCCCAT; a subtype A specific antisense primer). For intrasubtype dual infections, the following subtype-specific primers were used: a115-envC4 (CCTCTTGCCAAGAATGTTC; a 115-A antisense primer), a120-envC4 (TCTAGTGTCTGGACCGAT; a 120-D antisense primer), d122-envC1 (GTCAGGGCGAGCATACTA; 122-D sense primer), d122-envC4 (CCCAGTGGTTCAATCTC; a 122-D antisense primer), d126-envC1 (ACAAGGGCAAGCATGGTA; a 126-D sense primer), and d126-envC4 (GACCTAGTGGCTCAATTTTTAC; a 126-D antisense primer). All of these intrasubtype and intersubtype specific primer sets flanked the C1 to C4 regions of env (nt positions of approximately 6520 to 7740). Both external and nested PCR reactions were carried out in a 100-μl reaction mixture with defined cycling conditions . PCR-amplified products were separated on agarose gels and then purified using the QIAquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen). Control PCR amplifications were performed with subtype-specific DNA templates to rule out the possibility of Taq-generated recombinants . These isolate/subtype specific templates were generated by cloning the PCR amplified env gene of virus 115-A, 120-A, and 89-D, 122-D, and 126-D into pCR2.1 vector (Invitrogen). As an amplification/PCR quantitation control for recombination frequency calculations, plasmids containing entire env gene of the subtype A and D viruses were serially diluted and PCR amplified. Intensities of these products on agarose gels were then used as a standard curves and to calculate copy number of recombined viral RNA molecules in the dual infection based on the intensity of RT-PCR amplified products.
Calculating the frequency of recombination in the multiple cycle dual infection assay
To determine the frequency of recombination after multiple rounds of infection and replication in tissue culture, external and nested PCR amplification were used with subtype or isolate specific primers as described above. The frequency of recombination was determined using both parental sequence primer sets (eg. d-envC1 – d-envC4), and recombinant primer sets (eg. d-envC1 – a115-envC1). The frequency of recombination was determined by quantifying the intensity of the PCR products on an agarose gel using Quantity One software (BioRad). Copy number of recombined and parental HIV-1 DNA is then derived by the intensity of the product compared to that of amplified product from known copy numbers of plasmid controls. The recombination frequency is calculated by dividing the total recombinant virus production by the total virus production in the system.
Heteroduplex tracking assay for detection of two HIV-1 envfragments
Nested PCR products of the env gene were analyzed by heteroduplex tracking analysis . The same genomic regions were PCR amplified from a subtype E HIV-1 env clone (E-pTH22)  for use as a DNA probe. For this amplification, the E80 primer was radiolabeled with T4 polynucleotide kinase and 2 μCi of [γ-32P]ATP and paired with the E125 primer to amplify the C2-C4 region of env . The same pair of cold primers were employed to PCR amplify the HIV-1 env DNA from each dual infection. Radiolabeled PCR-amplified probes were separated on 1% agarose gels and purified with the Qiaquick gel extraction kit (Qiagen). Reaction mixtures contained DNA annealing buffer (100 mM NaCl, 10 mM Tris-HCl [pH 7.8], and 2 mM EDTA), 10 μl of unlabeled PCR-amplified DNA from the competition culture, and approximately 0.1 pmol of radioactive probe DNA . The competition and probe DNA in this mixture was then denatured at 95°C for 3 min and then rapidly annealed on wet ice. After 30 min on ice, the DNA heteroduplexes were resolved on Tris-borate-EDTA buffer on 5 to 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels (30:0.8 acrylamide-bisacrylamide) for 2.5 h at 200 V. The percentage of polyacrylamide in the gel matrix was dependent on the size of the amplified product employed in the heteroduplex tracking analysis. Gels were dried and exposed to X-ray film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.). Heteroduplexes representing production of each isolate in a dual infection were quantified with the Bio-Rad Phosphor-imager.
Estimation of viral fitness
In our HIV-1 competition experiments, the final ratio of the two viruses produced from a dual infection was determined by heteroduplex tracking analysis and compared to production in the monoinfections. Production of individual HIV-1 isolates in a dual infection (f0) was divided by the initial proportion in the inoculum (i o ) and is referred to as relative fitness (w = f0/i0) . The ratio of the relative fitness values of each HIV-1 variant in the competition is a measure of the fitness difference (W D ) between the two HIV-1 strains (W D = w M /w L ), where w M and w L correspond to the relative fitness of the more and less fit virus, respectively . As indicated in the text, viral fitness can also be calculated from the parental specific PCR products.
Reverse transcription/strand transfer reactions
These reconstituted in vitro reverse transcription reactions focused on template switching in the C3 region of env using 115-A or 120-A donor RNA and 89-D acceptor RNA templates. For these reactions RNA transcripts were made from PCR products derived from the subtype clones. Primer pairs (5' GATTTAGGTGACACTATAG ATATAATGAGGTAGTCAAACAATTA-3' and 5'-TTTATTCTGCATTTGAGAGT-3' for 115-A, 5'-GATTTAGGTGACACTATAG ATATAAGGAGGTAGCCAAACAATTA-3' and 5'-TTTATTCTGCATTGGAGAGT-3' for 120-A, and 5'-GATTTAGGTGACACTATAG TATATAGAATGGAATAAAACTATAC-3' and 5'-ACCGTTTGTGTTTGTACTCT-3' for 89-D) were used in PCR reactions to amplify nts 7255-7474 (relative to HXB-2 provirus numbering) for 115-A and 120-A, and 7235-7454 for 89-D. The bolded regions of the primers are SP6 promoter sequences while italicized regions are non HIV sequences. PCR products were recovered on native polyacrylamide gels and SP6 RNA polymerase was used to produce run-off transcripts of 225 nts. A DNA primer that binds specifically to the donor RNA transcript (5'-TTTATTCTGCATTTGAGAGT-3' or 5'-TTTATTCTGCATTGGAGAGT-3' for A-115 and A-102, respectively) was 32P-labeled at the 5' end with T4 polynucleotide kinase according to the manufacturer's protocol (New England Biolabs). The donor RNA was hybridized to a complementary labeled primer by mixing primer:transcript at approximately 3:1 ratio in 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 1 mM DTT, 80 mM KCl. The mixture was heated to 65°C for 5 min and then slowly cooled to room temperature. Donor RNA-primer DNA hybrids (2 nM final concentration of RNA) were preincubated for 3 min in the presence or absence of 10 nM acceptor RNA template and NC (as indicated) in 42 μl of buffer (see below) at 37°C. One molecule of NC per two nucleotides was used in the reactions. Wild-type and mutant NC proteins from the HIV-1 NL4-3 strain were prepared as explained previously[60, 61]. The reactions were initiated by the addition of 8 μl of HIV-RT (80 nM final in reactions) to a mixture of 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 1 mM dithiothreitol, 80 mM KCl, 6 mM MgCl2, 100 μM dNTPs, 5 mM AMP (pH 7.0), 25 μM ZnCl2 and 0.4 units/μl RNase inhibitor. Reactions were allowed to incubate for 0, 30 s, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 min at 37°C prior to quenching a 6 μl aliquot of each reaction with 4 μl 25 mM EDTA (pH 8.0) and 2.5 ng of RNase-DNase free enzyme for 20 min at 37°C. Two μl of proteinase K at 2 mg/ml in 1.25% SDS, 15 mM EDTA (pH 8.0) and 10 mM Tris (pH 8.0) was then added to the above mixture, which was placed at 65°C for 1 hour. Finally, 12 μl of 2X formamide dye (90% formamide, 10 mM EDTA (pH 8.0), 0.1% xylene cyanol, 0.1% bromophenol blue) was added to the mixture and the samples were resolved on an 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel containing 7 M urea. Extended DNA products were quantified by phosphorimager analysis using a Bio-Rad FX phosphoimager.
human immunodeficiency virus type-1
circulating recombinant form
unique recombinant form
- env :
HIV-1 envelope gene
polymerase chain reaction
multiplicity of infection
tissue culture dose for 50% infectivity
heteroduplex tracking assay
Research for this study was performed at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, and Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. E.J.A. was supported by NIAID, NIH grants AI49170, AI57005, and AI43645-02. M.N. was supported by grant 51005-02-00/AO16-2 from SIDACTION, and by Institut Pasteur. J.D. was supported by GM051140. All virus work was performed in the biosafety level 2 and 3 facilities of the CWRU Center for AIDS Research (AI25879).
- Kawai S, Hanafusa H: Genetic recombination with avian tumor virus. Virology. 1972, 49: 37-44. 10.1016/S0042-6822(72)80005-9.View ArticlePubMed
- Linial M, Brown S: High-frequency recombination within the gag gene of Rous sarcoma virus. J Virol. 1979, 31: 257-260.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Vogt PK: Genetically stable reassortment of markers during mixed infection with avian tumor viruses. Virology. 1971, 46: 947-952. 10.1016/0042-6822(71)90093-6.View ArticlePubMed
- Hu WS, Temin HM: Genetic consequences of packaging two RNA genomes in one retroviral particle: pseudodiploidy and high rate of genetic recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990, 87: 1556-1560. 10.1073/pnas.87.4.1556.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Hu WS, Pathak VK, Temin HM: Role of reverse transcriptase in retroviral recombination. Reverse transcruptase. Edited by: Skalka AM and Goff SP. 1993, New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 251-274.
- Anderson JA, Bowman EH, Hu WS: Retroviral recombination rates do not increase linearly with marker distance and are limited by the size of the recombining subpopulation. J Virol. 1998, 72: 1195-1202.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Yu H, Jetzt AE, Dougherty JP: Use of single-cycle analysis to study rates and mechanisms of retroviral mutation. Methods. 1997, 12: 325-336. 10.1006/meth.1997.0486.View ArticlePubMed
- Yu H, Jetzt AE, Ron Y, Preston BD, Dougherty JP: The nature of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strand transfers. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273: 28384-28391. 10.1074/jbc.273.43.28384.View ArticlePubMed
- Jetzt AE, Yu H, Klarmann GJ, Ron Y, Preston BD, Dougherty JP: High rate of recombination throughout the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome. J Virol. 2000, 74: 1234-1240. 10.1128/JVI.74.3.1234-1240.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Zhang J, Tang LY, Li T, Ma Y, Sapp CM: Most retroviral recombinations occur during minus-strand DNA synthesis [In Process Citation]. J Virol. 2000, 74: 2313-2322. 10.1128/JVI.74.5.2313-2322.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Vogt P: The genome of avian RNA tumor viruses: a discussionof four models. Edited by: Silvestri L. Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing; 1973
- Galetto R, Negroni M: Mechanistic features of recombination in HIV. AIDS Rev. 2005, 7: 92-102.PubMed
- Jung A, Maier R, Vartanian JP, Bocharov G, Jung V, Fischer U, Meese E, Wain-Hobson S, Meyerhans A: Multiply infected spleen cells in HIV patients. Nature. 2002, 418: 144-10.1038/418144a.View ArticlePubMed
- Bocharov G, Ford NJ, Edwards J, Breinig T, Wain-Hobson S, Meyerhans A: A genetic-algorithm approach to simulating human immunodeficiency virus evolution reveals the strong impact of multiply infected cells and recombination. J Gen Virol. 2005, 86: 3109-3118. 10.1099/vir.0.81138-0.View ArticlePubMed
- Peeters M: Recombinant HIV sequences: Their role in the global epidemic. Human Retroviruses and AIDS 2000. Edited by: Kuiken CL, Foley B, Hahn B, Korber B, McCutchan F, Marx PA, Mellors J, Mullins JI, Sodroski J and Wolinsky S. 2000, Los Alamos, NM, Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, I-39-I-54. [http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/hiv-db/REVIEWS/PEETERS2000/Peeters.html]
- Quinones-Mateu ME, Arts EJ: Recombination in HIV-1: Update and implications. AIDS Reviews. 1999, 1: 89-100. [http://www.aidsreviews.com/resumen.asp?id=566&indice=199912&u=unp]
- Rambaut A, Posada D, Crandall KA, Holmes EC: The causes and consequences of HIV evolution. Nat Rev Genet. 2004, 5: 52-61. 10.1038/nrg1246.View ArticlePubMed
- Kuiken C, Foley B, Hahn BH, Marx P, McCutchan FE, Mellors J, Mullins J, Sodroski J, Wolinsky S, Korber B: HIV-1 sequence compendium. 2002, Los Alamos, Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, [http://hiv-web.lanl.gov/content/hiv-db/REVIEWS/PEETERS2000/Peeters.html]
- Peeters M, Toure-Kane C, Nkengasong JN: Genetic diversity of HIV in Africa: impact on diagnosis, treatment, vaccine development and trials. AIDS. 2003, 17: 2547-2560. 10.1097/00002030-200312050-00002.View ArticlePubMed
- Hoelscher M, Dowling WE, Sanders-Buell E, Carr JK, Harris ME, Thomschke A, Robb ML, Birx DL, McCutchan FE: Detection of HIV-1 subtypes, recombinants, and dual infections in east Africa by a multi-region hybridization assay. AIDS. 2002, 16: 2055-2064. 10.1097/00002030-200210180-00011.View ArticlePubMed
- Harris ME, Serwadda D, Sewankambo N, Kim B, Kigozi G, Kiwanuka N, Phillips JB, Wabwire F, Meehen M, Lutalo T, Lane JR, Merling R, Gray R, Wawer M, Birx DL, Robb ML, McCutchan FE: Among 46 near full length HIV type 1 genome sequences from Rakai District, Uganda, subtype D and AD recombinants predominate. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002, 18: 1281-1290. 10.1089/088922202320886325.View ArticlePubMed
- Dowling WE, Kim B, Mason CJ, Wasunna KM, Alam U, Elson L, Birx DL, Robb ML, McCutchan FE, Carr JK: Forty-one near full-length HIV-1 sequences from Kenya reveal an epidemic of subtype A and A-containing recombinants. AIDS. 2002, 16: 1809-1820. 10.1097/00002030-200209060-00015.View ArticlePubMed
- Gale CV, Yirrell DL, Campbell E, Van der PL, Grosskurth H, Kaleebu P: Genotypic variation in the pol gene of HIV type 1 in an antiretroviral treatment-naive population in rural southwestern Uganda. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006, 22: 985-992. 10.1089/aid.2006.22.985.View ArticlePubMed
- Levy DN, Aldrovandi GM, Kutsch O, Shaw GM: Dynamics of HIV-1 recombination in its natural target cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004, 101: 4204-4209. 10.1073/pnas.0306764101.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Chen J, Rhodes TD, Hu WS: Comparison of the genetic recombination rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in macrophages and T cells. J Virol. 2005, 79: 9337-9340. 10.1128/JVI.79.14.9337-9340.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Chin MP, Rhodes TD, Chen J, Fu W, Hu WS: Identification of a major restriction in HIV-1 intersubtype recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005, 102: 9002-9007. 10.1073/pnas.0502522102.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Andersen ES, Jeeninga RE, Damgaard CK, Berkhout B, Kjems J: Dimerization and template switching in the 5' untranslated region between various subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2003, 77: 3020-3030. 10.1128/JVI.77.5.3020-3030.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Gao Y, Paxinos E, Galovich J, Troyer R, Baird H, Abreha M, Kityo C, Mugyenyi P, Petropoulos C, Arts EJ: Characterization of a subtype D human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate that was obtained from an untreated individual and that is highly resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. J Virol. 2004, 78: 5390-5401. 10.1128/JVI.78.10.5390-5401.2004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Moumen A, Polomack L, Unge T, Veron M, Buc H, Negroni M: Evidence for a mechanism of recombination during reverse transcription dependent on the structure of the acceptor RNA. J Biol Chem. 2003, 278: 15973-15982. 10.1074/jbc.M212306200.View ArticlePubMed
- Galetto R, Moumen A, Giacomoni V, Veron M, Charneau P, Negroni M: The Structure of HIV-1 Genomic RNA in the gp120 Gene Determines a Recombination Hot Spot in Vivo. J Biol Chem. 2004, 279: 36625-36632. 10.1074/jbc.M405476200.View ArticlePubMed
- Quinones-Mateu ME, Gao Y, Ball SC, Marozsan AJ, Abraha A, Arts EJ: In vitro intersubtype recombinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: comparison to recent and circulating in vivo recombinant forms. J Virol. 2002, 76: 9600-9613. 10.1128/JVI.76.19.9600-9613.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Baird HA, Galetto R, Gao Y, Simon-Loriere E, Abreha M, Archer J, Fan J, Robertson DL, Arts EJ, Negroni M: Sequence determinants of breakpoint location during HIV-1 intersubtype recombination. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006, 34: 5203-5216. 10.1093/nar/gkl669.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Arts EJ, Mak J, Kleiman L, Wainberg MA: DNA found in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles may not be required for infectivity. J Gen Virol. 1994, 75 ( Pt 7): 1605-1613.View Article
- Arts EJ, Marois JP, Gu Z, Le Grice SF, Wainberg MA: Effects of 3'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate concentrations on chain termination by nucleoside analogs during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription of minus-strand strong-stop DNA. J Virol. 1996, 70: 712-720.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Quinones-Mateu ME, Arts EJ: HIV-1 Fitness: Implications forDrug Resistance, Disease Progression, and Global EpidemicEvolution. HIV Sequence Compendium 2001 Los Alamos, Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos NationalLaboratory [http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/hiv-db/REVIEWS/QUINONES2001/Quinones.html]
- Zhang J, Temin HM: The recombination rate is not increased when retroviral RNA is missing an encapsidation sequence. J Virol. 1996, 70: 2019-2021.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Zhang J, Sapp CM: Recombination between two identical sequences within the same retroviral RNA molecule. J Virol. 1999, 73: 5912-5917.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Onafuwa A, An W, Robson ND, Telesnitsky A: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genetic recombination is more frequent than that of Moloney murine leukemia virus despite similar template switching rates. J Virol. 2003, 77: 4577-4587. 10.1128/JVI.77.8.4577-4587.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- An W, Telesnitsky A: Effects of varying sequence similarity on the frequency of repeat deletion during reverse transcription of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vector. J Virol. 2002, 76: 7897-7902. 10.1128/JVI.76.15.7897-7902.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Dykes C, Balakrishnan M, Planelles V, Zhu Y, Bambara RA, Demeter LM: Identification of a preferred region for recombination and mutation in HIV-1 gag. Virology. 2004, 326: 262-279. 10.1016/j.virol.2004.02.033.View ArticlePubMed
- Rhodes T, Wargo H, Hu WS: High rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombination: near-random segregation of markers one kilobase apart in one round of viral replication. J Virol. 2003, 77: 11193-11200. 10.1128/JVI.77.20.11193-11200.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Zhuang J, Jetzt AE, Sun G, Yu H, Klarmann G, Ron Y, Preston BD, Dougherty JP: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombination: rate, fidelity, and putative hot spots. J Virol. 2002, 76: 11273-11282. 10.1128/JVI.76.22.11273-11282.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Richard N, Juntilla M, Abraha A, Demers K, Paxinos E, Galovich J, Petropoulos C, Whalen CC, Kyeyune F, Atwine D, Kityo C, Mugyenyi P, Arts EJ: High prevalence of antiretroviral resistance in treated Ugandans infected with non-subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004, 20: 355-364. 10.1089/088922204323048104.View ArticlePubMed
- Domingo E, Holland JJ: RNA virus mutations and fitness for survival. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1997, 51: 151-178. 10.1146/annurev.micro.51.1.151.View ArticlePubMed
- Reed LJ, Muench H: A simple method of estimating fifty percent endpoints. Am J Hyg. 1938, 27: 493-497.
- Marozsan AJ, Fraundorf E, Abraha A, Baird H, Moore D, Troyer R, Nankja I, Arts EJ: Relationships between Infectious Titer, Capsid Protein Levels, and Reverse Transcriptase Activities of Diverse Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates. J Virol. 2004, 78: 11130-11141. 10.1128/JVI.78.20.11130-11141.2004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Moumen A, Polomack L, Roques B, Buc H, Negroni M: The HIV-1 repeated sequence R as a robust hot-spot for copy-choice recombination. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001, 29: 3814-3821. 10.1093/nar/29.18.3814.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Naldini L, Blomer U, Gallay P, Ory D, Mulligan R, Gage FH, Verma IM, Trono D: In vivo gene delivery and stable transduction of nondividing cells by a lentiviral vector. Science. 1996, 272: 263-267. 10.1126/science.272.5259.263.View ArticlePubMed
- Yee JK, Miyanohara A, LaPorte P, Bouic K, Burns JC, Friedmann T: A general method for the generation of high-titer, pantropic retroviral vectors: highly efficient infection of primary hepatocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994, 91: 9564-9568. 10.1073/pnas.91.20.9564.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Hirt B: Selective extraction of polyoma DNA from infected mouse cell cultures. J Mol Biol. 1967, 26: 365-369. 10.1016/0022-2836(67)90307-5.View ArticlePubMed
- Zennou V, Petit C, Guetard D, Nerhbass U, Montagnier L, Charneau P: HIV-1 genome nuclear import is mediated by a central DNA flap. Cell. 2000, 101: 173-185. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80828-4.View ArticlePubMed
- Negroni M, Ricchetti M, Nouvel P, Buc H: Homologous recombination promoted by reverse transcriptase during copying of two distinct RNA templates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995, 92: 6971-6975. 10.1073/pnas.92.15.6971.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Canard B, Sarfati SR, Richardson CC: Enhanced binding of azidothymidine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus 1 reverse transcriptase to the 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine 5'-monophosphate-terminated primer. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273: 14596-14604. 10.1074/jbc.273.23.14596.View ArticlePubMed
- Quinones-Mateu ME, Ball SC, Marozsan AJ, Torre VS, Albright JL, Vanham G, van der GG, Colebunders RL, Arts EJ: A dual infection/competition assay shows a correlation between ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus type 1 fitness and disease progression. J Virol. 2000, 74: 9222-9233. 10.1128/JVI.74.19.9222-9233.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Torre VS, Marozsan AJ, Albright JL, Collins KR, Hartley O, Offord RE, Quinones-Mateu ME, Arts EJ: Variable sensitivity of CCR5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates to inhibition by RANTES analogs. 2000, 74: 4868-4876.
- Gao F, Yue L, Craig S, Thornton CL, Robertson DL, McCutchan FE, Bradac JA, Sharp PM, Hahn BH, WHO Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization: Genetic variation of HIV Type 1 in four World Health Organization-sponsored vaccine evaluation sites: generation of functional envelope (glycoprotein 160) clones representative of sequence subtypes A, B, C, and E. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 1994, 10: 1359-1368.View ArticlePubMed
- Sanders-Buell E, Salminen M, McCutchan F: Sequencing primers for HIV-1. Human retroviruses and AIDS. Edited by: Korber B, Walker BD, Moore JP, Myers G, Brander C, Koup RA and Haynes B. 1995, Los Alamos, NM, Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, III-15-III-21.
- Bradley RD, Hillis DM: Recombinant DNA sequences generated by PCR amplification. Mol Biol Evol. 1997, 14: 592-593.View ArticlePubMed
- Delwart EL, Shpaer EG, Louwagie J, McCutchan FE, Grez M, Rübsamen-Waigmann H, Mullins JI: Genetic relationships determined by a DNA heteroduplex mobility assay: analysis of HIV-1 env genes. Science. 1993, 262: 1257-1261. 10.1126/science.8235655.View ArticlePubMed
- Carteau S, Gorelick RJ, Bushman FD: Coupled integration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cDNA ends by purified integrase in vitro: stimulation by the viral nucleocapsid protein. J Virol. 1999, 73: 6670-6679.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Heath MJ, Derebail SS, Gorelick RJ, DeStefano JJ: Differing roles of the N- and C-terminal zinc fingers in human immunodeficiency virus nucleocapsid protein-enhanced nucleic acid annealing. J Biol Chem. 2003, 278: 30755-30763. 10.1074/jbc.M303819200.View ArticlePubMed
- Ball SC, Abraha A, Collins KR, Marozsan AJ, Baird H, Quinones-Mateu ME, Penn-Nicholson A, Murray M, Richard N, Lobritz M, Zimmerman PA, Kawamura T, Blauvelt A, Arts EJ: Comparing the Ex Vivo Fitness of CCR5-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates of Subtypes B and C. J Virol. 2003, 77: 1021-1038. 10.1128/JVI.77.2.1021-1038.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Troyer RM, Collins KR, Abraha A, Fraundorf E, Moore DM, Krizan RW, Toossi Z, Colebunders RL, Jensen MA, Mullins JI, Vanham G, Arts EJ: Changes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Fitness and Genetic Diversity during Disease Progression. J Virol. 2005, 79: 9006-9018. 10.1128/JVI.79.14.9006-9018.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.