N-terminal Slit2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by regulating the actin cytoskeleton
- Appakkudal R Anand†1,
- Helong Zhao†1,
- Tirumuru Nagaraja1,
- Lisa A Robinson2 and
- Ramesh K Ganju1Email author
© Anand et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 11 July 2012
Accepted: 17 December 2012
Published: 7 January 2013
Slit2 is a ~ 200 kDa secreted glycoprotein that has been recently shown to regulate immune functions. However, not much is known about its role in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-1 pathogenesis.
In the present study, we have shown that the N-terminal fragment of Slit2 (Slit2N) (~120 kDa) inhibits replication of both CXCR4 and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses in T-cell lines and peripheral blood T-cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated inhibition of HIV-1 infection in resting CD4+ T-cells. In addition, we showed that Slit2N blocks cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. We have shown that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 infection by blocking viral entry into T-cells. We also ruled out Slit2N-mediated inhibition of various other steps in the life cycle including binding, integration and viral transcription. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism revealed that Slit2N mediates its functional effects by binding to Robo1 receptor. Furthermore, we found that Slit2N inhibited Gp120-induced Robo1-actin association suggesting that Slit2N may inhibit cytoskeletal rearrangements facilitating HIV-1 entry. Studies into the mechanism of inhibition of HIV-1 revealed that Slit2N abrogated HIV-1 envelope-induced actin cytoskeletal dynamics in both T-cell lines and primary T-cells. We further showed that Slit2N specifically attenuated the HIV-1 envelope-induced signaling pathway consisting of Rac1, LIMK and cofilin that regulates actin polymerization.
Taken together, our results show that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 replication through novel mechanisms involving modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. Our study, thus, provides insights into the role of Slit2N in HIV-1 infection and underscores its potential in limiting viral replication in T-cells.
Slits belong to a group of large secretory glycoproteins that were initially described as regulating axonal guidance during the development of the central nervous system [1, 2]. Slit consists of a family of three genes: Slit1, Slit2 and Slit3 that are highly homologous to each other and encode ligands for the Roundabout (Robo) receptors [3, 4]. It is now clear that Slit and Robo genes are expressed in a range of tissues in addition to the brain, where Slit-Robo signaling has critical functions . However, information on the effects of Slit2 in non-neuronal systems is not well-studied, with recent studies indicating that Slit2/Robo1 complex regulates lung and kidney development, tumor angiogenesis and metastasis [6–11]. With regard to the immune system, Slit2 has been shown to inhibit migration of hematopoietic cells, monocytes, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and T lymphocytes, toward chemoattractant signals [12–15]. Specifically, we and others have shown Slit2 blocks CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis in T-cells [15, 16]. In addition, we recently showed that full-length Slit2 inhibited both X4 and R5-tropic HIV-1 replication in T-cells . Recently, Slit2N also was shown to regulate HIV-1-gp120-induced endothelial permeability .
A prototypical Slit2 protein contains an N-terminal signal peptide, four leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), seven (in Drosophila Slit) or nine (in vertebrate Slits) EGF repeats, and a C-terminal cysteine knot . Studies have shown that full-length Slit2 is cleaved between the fifth and sixth EGF-like repeat into a 120–140 kDa N-terminal and a 50–60 kDa C-terminal fragment . Recent evidence suggests that the N-terminal region of Slit2 (Slit2N) is responsible for the biological functions of Slit2 [5, 21].
The intracellular signal transduction mechanism for Slit2/Robo1 signaling is not well-studied. However, several lines of recent evidence have demonstrated that Slit2 regulates actin polymerization after binding to Robo receptor [16, 22–24]. Robo is a transmembrane receptor that consists of a fibronectin type III and immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains and an intracellular cytoplasmatic domain. The intracellular domain of Robo has been shown to interact with proteins that regulate the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphates (GTPases), which play well-defined roles in cell migration, cytoskeletal organization and remodeling by eliciting changes in actin cytoskeleton . Furthermore, HIV has the capacity to bind to its receptors, CD4 and/or co-receptors (CXCR4 or CCR5) and induce signal transduction pathways that trigger actin cytoskeletal rearrangements facilitating viral entry [26–30].
In the present study, we have analyzed the effect of N-terminal domain of Slit2 (Slit2N) in HIV-1 infection and shown that it inhibits replication of both X4 and R5-tropic HIV-1. Furthermore, our mechanistic studies in T-cell lines and primary T-cells have revealed that Slit2 inhibits the HIV-1 viral entry through a novel mechanism involving modulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics.
N-terminal fragment of Slit2 mediates anti-HIV-1 activity
Firstly, the purity of Slit2N was determined by silver staining (Figure 1B). To confirm that Slit2N does not affect the viability and proliferation of T-cells, we performed the MTT assay (Roche, Indianapolis, IN) as per the manufacturer’s recommendations, using various concentrations of Slit2N. We found that Slit2 did not affect cell viability or cell proliferation (data not shown). We also demonstrated that Slit2 did not affect T-cell activation (data not shown). Next, we evaluated the anti-HIV-1 activity of Slit2N against cell-free virus. We used a range of concentrations of Slit2N (0.6-60 nM), and Slit2N clearly showed a dose-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 replication in MT4 cells (Figure 1C). We obtained a maximum inhibition of 82.6% when Slit2N was used at a concentration of 60 nM.
To check the specificity of activity of Slit2N against HIV-1, we pre-incubated MT4 cells with or without Slit2N and then infected these cells with HIV-luc pseudotyped with the VSV-G envelope protein. This single-life cycle virus does not require HIV receptors to enter the target cells . Incubation of MT4 cells with Slit2N had no effect on infection with HIV-Luc pseudotyped with VSV-G (Figure 1D).
Several recent studies have indicated that the functional effects of Slit2 are concentrated in the D2 domain of Slit2 [4, 32]. To verify whether the D2 region is responsible for the anti-HIV activity of Slit2, we obtained a mutant Slit2 protein that lacks the second leucine-rich region that is necessary for binding to Robo1 (Slit2ΔD2) . MT4 cells were infected with HIV-1 IIIB in the presence of equivalent concentrations of Slit2N and Slit2 ΔD2 (≈6nM). We found that Slit2 ΔD2 showed no inhibition of HIV replication in comparison to Slit2N (Figure 1E), indicating that the anti-HIV activity of Slit2 is restricted to the D2 domain of Slit2.
In addition to infection with cell-free virions, the importance of cell-associated spread across connecting membrane bridges and close cell–cell contacts is increasingly recognized and thought to constitute the predominant mechanism of HIV-1 propagation in vivo [34, 35]. We, therefore, examined whether Slit2N has an effect on cell-cell transmission of HIV-1. Briefly, MT4 cells were first productively infected with HIV-1 IIIB. After 24 hours, ~70-80% of the cells were HIV-1 p24 positive by intracellular p24 staining and flow cytometry (data not shown). These cells were used as donors and co-cultivated with Far-red Cell trace dye-labeled Jurkat T-cells in the presence of various concentrations of Slit2N, as described in the Methods. As shown in Figure 1F, we clearly observed a dose-dependent inhibition of HIV infection in the target cells with maximum inhibition of 62.5% when Slit2N was used at 60nM. These studies indicate that Slit2N also inhibits cell to cell spread of HIV in T-cells.
Slit2 attenuates viral entry
Next, we further specifically tested the ability of Slit2N to block cellular entry of HIV-1 in MT4 cells using a HIV-1 virus entry assay. We observed a significant reduction (~40%) in the amount of virus that enters the cell in Slit2N-treated cells as compared to the control (Figure 3D). To further analyze the role of Slit2N in inhibiting HIV-1 infection, we performed viral fusion and entry experiments by using X4-tropic HIV-1 viral particles containing the BlaM-Vpr chimera . These chimera virions have been designed to specifically study the first steps of viral infection, since β-lactamase activity directly correlates with viral entry. Untreated and Slit2N-treated MT4 cells were incubated (3 h) with equivalent viral inputs of X4-tropic virions containing BlaM-Vpr fusion protein. Untreated cells were susceptible to viral entry, whereas in cells treated with Slit2N, viral entry was strongly reduced (~50%) (Figure 3E). Taken together, these data indicate that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 viral fusion and entry.
Anti-HIV-1 activity of Slit2N is mediated through Robo1
Slit2 inhibits the HIV-1-envelope induced Robo1-actin association
Since studies have shown that Robo associates with several actin-related proteins to mediate its functions [38–40], we evaluated whether HIV-1 gp120 regulates the association of Robo1 with actin. Interestingly, we found that treatment with HIV-1 gp120 enhanced the association of the Robo1 receptor with actin. However, pretreatment with Slit2N attenuated the gp120-induced Robo1-actin association at 5, 15 and 30 minute intervals (Figure 5C), indicating that Slit2N upon binding to Robo1 inhibits Robo1/actin association and may thus modulate HIV-1-induced cytoskeletal changes facilitating viral entry.
Slit2N attenuates HIV-1-envelope-induced actin polymerization in T-cells
To determine whether Slit2N affects HIV-mediated actin dynamics leading to virus entry in primary cells, we examined the effect of Slit2N on HIV-1 envelope-mediated actin dynamics in resting CD4+ T-cells. Actin polymerization was demonstrated by changes in phalloidin-FITC binding to F-actin over time. We found that HIV gp120 transiently triggered low actin polymerization at early time points in primary T-cells. Pre-treatment with Slit2N inhibited early actin polymerization in these cells (Figure 6C and D), indicating that Slit2 may inhibit HIV-1 entry by modulating the cytoskeletal changes induced by HIV-1.
Slit2 inhibits signaling mechanisms that regulate Gp120-induced actin cytoskeletal dynamics
We further evaluated the mechanism by which Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 gp120-induced actin polymerization. The mechanism that triggers early actin polymerization through HIV-1 envelope-mediated transient activation of the Rho GTPase, Rac1 and the LIM domain kinase (LIMK), has recently been described [27–29, 42, 43]. LIMK1 is a protein that phosphorylates and inactivates cofilin that in turn enhances actin polymerization thus facilitating HIV entry. We therefore hypothesized that Slit2N may decrease early actin polymerization by preventing HIV-envelope-induced activation of the Rac1/LIMK1/cofilin pathway.
We also showed that treatment of resting CD4+ T-cells with Slit2N also interfered with HIV-envelope induced phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin. (Figure 7 D and E). Together, these results suggest that Slit2N inhibits Gp120-induced Rac1/LIMK1/cofilin pathway that mediates actin polymerization, thereby blocking HIV-1 entry.
A prototypical Slit2 protein contains an N-terminal signal peptide, four leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), seven (in Drosophila Slit) or nine (in vertebrate Slits) EGF repeats, and a C-terminal cysteine knot . Structural-functional analysis of Slit2 has revealed that the anti-HIV-1 activity of Slit2 was present in the N-terminal domain of Slit2. In the present study, we also showed that the N-terminal region of Slit2 was sufficient to mediate anti-HIV-1 activity in T-cells. A recent study has also evaluated the administration of Slit2N in a murine model of H5N1 influenza . Furthermore, Slit2N also attenuated HIV-1 gp120-induced endothelial permeability . Our findings are thus in agreement with recent studies that indicate that many of the biological functions of Slit2 are mediated by the N-terminal fragment [5, 21].
In the present study, we showed that Slit2 not only inhibited infection of T-cells with cell-free virus, but also inhibited cell-cell transmission of HIV-1 using coculture of HIV-1–infected and noninfected cells. Cell-cell transmission of HIV-1, through the formation of a virological synapse, is the predominant mode of HIV-1 transfer in vivo and probably occurs in secondary lymphoid organs, where most lymphocytes are present and cells are in close contact with each other and with antigen-presenting cells [34, 35].
The initial steps in the HIV-1 viral life cycle include the binding of the viral envelope glycoproteins to the primary receptor, CD4 and co-receptors, CXCR4/CCR5 followed by membrane fusion and viral entry. Recently, Slit2 was shown to downregulate CXCR4 expression in breast cancer cells . However, in contrast to breast cancer cells, Slit2N did not have any effect on the downregulation of either CXCR4/CCR5 or CD4 expression, ruling out down-modulation of HIV-1 receptors/co-receptors as a mechanism of action for Slit2. In addition, virus binding assays indicated that Slit2N did not inhibit HIV-1 binding onto target cells. However, specific entry assays demonstrated that Slit2 inhibited viral entry into the target cell.
In our mechanistic studies, we showed the importance of Robo1 in Slit2-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication using siRNA-mediated Robo1 knockdown experiments. This is in agreement with various genetic and biochemical experiments that have shown that Slit2 binds to Robo1 receptor to mediate signaling and many of its functional effects [1, 3, 4, 15, 16, 23]. Our next aim was to investigate the exact mechanism of inhibition of virus entry. The early interaction between HIV and T cells initiates intracellular signaling cascades that are important for the early steps of the HIV life cycle [28, 45].
The cortical actin is a common structure that is targeted by most viruses for entry and intracellular transport [46, 47]. In HIV-1 infection, the direct involvement of the cortical actin in early stages of viral infection has been suggested in HIV-mediated CD4-CXCR4 receptor clustering [26, 46, 48], and intracellular migration . Actin polymerization has been shown to promote viral entry in both the simple model of infection by free virus and the more physiologically relevant route of infection through the virological synapse [26, 28–30, 45, 49]. In this study, we showed that Slit2N inhibits gp120-induced actin polymerization and Robo-actin association at early time points. This is in agreement with the common theme emerging from a number of studies that Slit2 mediates cellular guidance through regulation of actin polymerization as well as data from neuronal cells linking Robo to proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton including ena and srGAP1 [11, 14, 22, 23, 50].
The data implicating that Slit2N inhibits Gp120-induced actin polymerization led us to evaluate the intracellular molecules that transduce the signal to regulate the actin polymerization. Several studies indicate that the regulatory effect of Slit2 involve modulation of Rho family of small GTPases, Rac1 and cdc42 [11, 14, 23, 50]. Rho-GTPases play a definitive role in cell migration, cytoskeletal organization and actin remodeling. A recent study has also shown that the binding of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with the primary receptor CD4 and one of the co-receptors, CXCR4 or CCR5 activates a signaling cascade resulting in activation of Rho GTPases, specifically Rac1 and actin cytoskeletal remodeling that facilitate HIV-1-induced membrane fusion and virus entry . Rac1 has been shown to be activated by gp120 to trigger actin polymerization to mediate both cell-cell  and virus-cell fusion . Furthermore, another recent study has described a pathogenic mechanism for triggering early actin polymerization through HIV-1 envelope-mediated transient activation of Rac1-LIMK1-cofilin pathway .
In summary, our studies reveal that N-terminal region of Slit2 possesses anti-HIV-1 activity against both X4 and R5-tropic viruses. Furthermore, elucidation of the signaling mechanisms revealed that Slit2N regulates HIV-1 infection by inhibiting HIV entry into target cells through modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. We have shown that Slit2N inhibits gp120-induced Robo1-actin association. In addition, our studies revealed that Slit2/Robo1 modulates cytoskeleton by attenuating Rac/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. Our findings thus elucidate the role of Slit2N in HIV-1 infection and could provide insights into novel approaches to limit HIV-1 infection.
The lab-adapted X4-tropic virus, HIV-1 IIIB and the R5-tropic virus, HIV-1 BaL, used in this study were obtained from the NIH AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program.
MT4 cells, a human T-cell line bearing human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (NIH AIDS Research and Reference Reagent program) were grown in RPMI 1640 medium (Mediatech, Manassas, VA) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS) (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and antibiotics. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from heparinized venous blood collected from healthy HIV-1-seronegative donors (American Red cross, Columbus, OH) by Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation (GE Biosciences, Piscataway, NJ). The study was done in compliance with the Helsinki declaration on rights of human subjects with approval from the Ohio State University Institutional Review Board (2007H0281). Monocytes were depleted by two rounds of adherence to plastic. Nonadherent cells were either rested overnight in complete RPMI and used for infection or stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (5 μg/ml) for 3 days. CD4+ T-cells were isolated according to the manufacturer’s protocol by immunomagnetic selection (EasySep Kit, Stem Cell Technologies, Canada).
MT4 cells pre-treated with various concentrations of Slit2N (0.6-60 nM) were infected with HIV-1 at 10 ng p24/106 cells. The cells were washed extensively after two hours of infection to remove the unbound virus and incubated for 48 hours. PHA-stimulated PBMCs were pre-treated with Slit2N and infected similarly with HIV-1. The culture supernatant were assessed with the HIV-1 p24 ELISA (Advanced Bioscience Laboratories, Kensington, MD).
For infection of resting CD4+ T-cells, HIV-1 IIIB (10 ng p24) was used to infect 106 cells. For these studies, T-cells were pretreated with Slit2N (6nM), incubated with the virus for 2 hours at 37°C and washed twice with medium to remove the unbound virus. Infected cells were resuspended into fresh complete RPMI containing Slit2N (6nM) at a density of 106/ml and incubated for 5 days without stimulation. Cells were activated at day 5 with anti-CD3/CD28 magnetic beads (Dynal) at 2–4 beads per cell to initiate viral replication. Infected cells were pelleted at various time points and supernatants used for p24 ELISA.
Quantification of cell-cell spread by flow cytometry
To measure cell-cell spread by flow cytometry, an adaptation of the assay of Sourisseau et al.  was used. Briefly, an equal number of HIV-1-infected donor MT4 cells were mixed with CellTrace Far Red-labeled target T cells (2 μM; Invitrogen) in the presence of various concentrations of Slit2N (0–60 nM) and incubated for 4 h at 37°C. In addition, infected cells were treated with trypsin-EDTA prior to fixing to further diminish doublet formation and to remove surface-absorbed p24. Cells were then fixed in 4% formaldehyde, washed, and permeabilized in BD Perm/Wash buffer (BD Biosciences), and HIV-1 p24 was detected with the FITC-conjugated HIV p24 antibody (Pierce) and data acquired using a FACSCalibur (BD Biosciences). The percentage of HIV-p24+ cells among the CellTrace FarRed-labeled target cells was quantified and data analysis performed using CellQuest 5.0.
Proteins antibodies and plasmids
Slit2N protein was obtained either from AbCam (Cambridge, MA) or Creative Biomart (Shirley, NY); LIMK1, Cofilin and GAPDH antibody was obtained from Cell signaling (Danvers, MA), while Robo1 antibodies were obtained from AbCam. Slit ΔD2 was prepared by transfecting the Slit ΔD2 plasmid in 293 T cells. The protein was purified from the supernatants as described before . The Slit ΔD2 plasmid was cloned in pTT28 by deleting the second LRR domain of truncted Slit2 (Slit2-N) using restriction enzymes BsrGI and NheI. After deleting 210 amino acids (Q235-W444) of Slit2-N, a short synthesized linker corresponding to amino acids YTAGGSAGGSAGGSAGKL was inserted into BsrGI and NheI restriction sites .
Preparation and infection of HIV-1 pseudotyped viruses
HIV-1 viruses pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope protein (VSV-G) were prepared as previously described [52, 53]. Briefly, 293 T cells (27 × 106 per 10 cm plate) were transfected with 20 μg of pNL4-3.Luc.R-E- (HIV-Luc) plasmid and 4 μg of pVSV-G (obtained from the NIH AIDS Research and Reference reagent program) by lipofectamine 2000 reagent (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Cell culture supernatants were collected 48 hours later, filtered and saved as virus stocks. For infection, pseudotyped viruses corresponding to 10 ng p24 were used to infect target cells. Following 2 hour infection, the cells were washed extensively to remove unbound viruses. The cells were incubated for 48 hours and harvested for luciferase activity as previously described .
Immunostaining and flow cytometry
FITC- or PE-labeled monoclonal antibodies against human CD4, CCR5 or CXCR4 were purchased from BD Biosciences. Half million cells were incubated with isotype control or the labeled antibodies on ice in PBS-0.1%BSA for 30 minutes. Cells were washed with cold PBS-0.5% BSA, and then analyzed on a FACSCalibur (BD Biosciences). To determine intracellular p24, HIV-1 infected T- cells were fixed and permeabilized using Fix/perm solution (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and stained with KC57 monoclonal antibody (Coulter, Brea, CA) followed by flow cytometry analysis. The respective isotype control was also included. The flow cytometry data was analyzed by CellQuest software (BD Biosciences).
Gp120 binding assay
MT4 cells were incubated for 1 hour at 37°C with differing concentrations of Slit2N After the incubation, cells were washed with PBS and incubated with 1 μg/mL FITC-conjugated recombinant gp120 (Immunodiagnostics, Woburn, MA) for 30 minutes at room temperature. The fluorescence intensity of gp120-FITC bound to the surface of lymphocytes was measured with the FACS Calibur.
Virus binding assay
The procedure used to detect the binding of HIV-1 particles into target cells was described previously . Briefly, MT4 cells (1.0 × 106 cells/mL) were exposed to HIV-1 (40 ng p24) in the absence or presence of the Slit2N (3 and 6 nM) in 100 μL of PBS. After incubation at 4°C for 1 h, unbound virus particles were removed by washing the cells three times in PBS. Cell lysates were prepared by resuspending the pellet in lysis buffer (PBS containing 1% Triton X). Viral binding was monitored by measuring the amount of p24 in the cell lysates by ELISA. Total cell protein was calculated using Bradford assay and all samples were normalized for protein content.
Viral entry assays
In the first method, MT4 cells (1.0 × 106 cells/mL) were exposed to HIV-1 (40 ng p24) in the absence or presence of the Slit2N (3nM and 6 nM) in 100 μL of PBS. After incubation at 37°C for 4 hours, unbound virus particles were removed by washing the cells three times in PBS. The cells were treated with 0.05% trypsin for 10 minutes to remove surface-bound viral particles. Cell lysates were prepared by resuspending the pellet in lysis buffer (PBS containing 1% Triton X). Viral entry was monitored by measuring the amount of p24 in the cell lysates by ELISA. Total cell protein was calculated using Bradford assay and all samples were normalized for protein content.
In the second approach, viral entry was measured by the virion-based fusion assay . Briefly, a total of 1 x 106 MT4 cells were incubated 3 h with equivalent viral inputs of BlaM-Vpr-containing virions (500 ng of p24) in 500 μl RPMI 1640 medium. Cells were then extensively washed to remove free virions and incubated (1 h, room temperature) with CCF2-AM loading mix, as recommended by the manufacturer (GeneBLAzer detection kit; Invitrogen). Next, excess dye was washed off and cells were incubated for 16 h at room temperature before fixation with 4% paraformaldehyde. Then, 8 × 105 cells were placed in a 96-well plate per each experimental condition. The associated emission light to cleaved CCF2 (blue; 447 nm) and intact CCF2 probe (green; 520 nm) was measured. The entry of BlaM-Vpr containing virions was measured as the ratio of the maximum fluorescence intensity between cleaved and intact CCF2. Thereby, an increase in this ratio indicates more fused viruses with target cells. The percentage of infection was determined by measuring the fluorescence intensities of intact and cleaved CCF2 probe in control infected cells (scrambled or pCDNA.3 transfected cells) and subtracting the background blue and green fluorescence ratio determined in noninfected cells (without β-lactamase activity), (GeneBLAzer detection kit; Invitrogen).
Host cell nuclear integration of HIV in MT4 cells was analyzed by PCR as described previously . DNA was prepared by using a DNA extraction kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. DNA samples were used for the amplification of integrated DNA with Alu-LTR–specific primers  using the following cycling conditions: 95°C for 10 minutes, then 40 cycles at 95°C for 15 s, 60°C for 1 minute, and 72°C for 1 minute. GAPDH was used as an internal control.
Determining proviral transcription of full-length (FL) and multiple-spliced (MS) HIV-1 mRNA
RNA was prepared from untreated or Slit2N treated HIV-1 IIIB-infected cells using the QIAamp RNAeasy Mini Kit protocol (Qiagen). FL and MS HIV-1 mRNA transcript levels were determined by a modification of a protocol described . qRT-PCR was performed using primers (200nM) specific for FL and for MS using 400 ng of sample RNA in a SYBR Green assay system using a Realplex Cycler (Eppendorf, Westbury, NY).
SiRNA-mediated knockdown of Robo1 was performed using specific ON-TARGETplus SMARTpool siRNA (Dharmacon, Lafayette,CO). Briefly, MT4 cells were nucleofected with 200 nM siRNA (Amaxa Biosystems). The respective, non-targeted (NT) siRNA was used as a control. Robo1 siRNA- -mediated knockdown was estimated by detecting Robo1 expression 48 hours after the initial transfection by Western blotting and/or flow cytometry.
Rac1 activation assay
Rac1 activation was determined by using the Rac/Cdc42 activation assay kit (Millipore). In brief, cell lysates were pre-cleared with sepharose beads were incubated with 20 μg/ml p21-activated kinase (PAK)-1 agarose for 60 minutes at 4°C, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Agarose beads were collected by centrifugation, followed by denaturation, boiling of the samples, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, and Western blotting was performed by using murine anti-human Rac1 antibody. Blotting of equal amounts of lysates with total Rac1 represented the loading controls.
FITC-Phalloidin staining of F-actin
One to two million cells were stimulated with HIV-1 gp120 IIIB and incubated at 37°C with gentle agitation (600 to 1200 rpm) to prevent cell settling at the bottom. F-actin staining using FITC-labeled phalloidin (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) was carried out according to the manufacturer’s recommendation with minor modifications. Briefly, each staining was carried out using 1–2 × 106 cells. Cells were pelleted, fixed and permeabilized with CytoPerm/Cytofix buffer (BD Biosciences) for 20 minutes at room temperature, washed with cold Perm/Wash buffer (BD Biosciences) twice, followed by staining with 5 μl of 0.3 mM FITC-labeled phalloidin for 30 minutes on ice in dark. After washing twice with cold Perm/Wash buffer, cells were resuspended in 1% paraformaldehyde and analyzed on a FACSCalibur (BD Biosciences). The cells were also observed under a fluorescence microscope (Zeiss Axiophot). Cells were scored as positive if increased F-actin staining was observed.
Equivalent amounts of protein extracts were run on a 4% to 12% gradient acrylamide gel (NuPAGE Bis-Tris gel; Invitrogen) and transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes. Immunodetection involved specific primary antibodies, appropriate secondary antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, and the enhanced chemiluminescence Western blotting detection system (GE Lifesciences).
Reported data are the means ± S.E.M. of at least three independent experiments performed in duplicate or triplicate. The statistical significance was determined by the Student’s t test.
We would like to thank the NIH AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program for providing various HIV-1 reagents. This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health Grant 5R01HL087576 to RKG.
- Kidd T, Bland KS, Goodman CS: Slit is the midline repellent for the robo receptor in Drosophila. Cell. 1999, 96 (6): 785-794. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80589-9.View ArticlePubMed
- Yuan W, Zhou L, Chen JH, Wu JY, Rao Y, Ornitz DM: The mouse SLIT family: secreted ligands for ROBO expressed in patterns that suggest a role in morphogenesis and axon guidance. Dev Biol. 1999, 212 (2): 290-306. 10.1006/dbio.1999.9371.View ArticlePubMed
- Hohenester E: Structural insight into Slit-Robo signalling. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008, 36 (Pt 2): 251-256.View ArticlePubMed
- Howitt JA, Clout NJ, Hohenester E: Binding site for Robo receptors revealed by dissection of the leucine-rich repeat region of Slit. EMBO J. 2004, 23 (22): 4406-4412. 10.1038/sj.emboj.7600446.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Chedotal A: Slits and their receptors. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007, 621: 65-80. 10.1007/978-0-387-76715-4_5.View ArticlePubMed
- Greenberg JM, Thompson FY, Brooks SK, Shannon JM, Akeson AL: Slit and robo expression in the developing mouse lung. Dev Dyn. 2004, 230 (2): 350-360. 10.1002/dvdy.20045.View ArticlePubMed
- Grieshammer U, Le M, Plump AS, Wang F, Tessier-Lavigne M, Martin GR: SLIT2-mediated ROBO2 signaling restricts kidney induction to a single site. Dev Cell. 2004, 6 (5): 709-717. 10.1016/S1534-5807(04)00108-X.View ArticlePubMed
- Marlow R, Strickland P, Lee JS, Wu X, Pebenito M, Binnewies M, Le EK, Moran A, Macias H, Cardiff RD, et al: SLITs suppress tumor growth in vivo by silencing Sdf1/Cxcr4 within breast epithelium. Cancer Res. 2008, 68 (19): 7819-7827. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1357.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Prasad A, Paruchuri V, Preet A, Latif F, Ganju RK: Slit-2 induces a tumor-suppressive effect by regulating beta-catenin in breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2008, 283 (39): 26624-26633. 10.1074/jbc.M800679200.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Wang B, Xiao Y, Ding BB, Zhang N, Yuan X, Gui L, Qian KX, Duan S, Chen Z, Rao Y, et al: Induction of tumor angiogenesis by Slit-Robo signaling and inhibition of cancer growth by blocking Robo activity. Cancer Cell. 2003, 4 (1): 19-29. 10.1016/S1535-6108(03)00164-8.View ArticlePubMed
- Prasad A, Fernandis AZ, Rao Y, Ganju RK: Slit protein-mediated inhibition of CXCR4-induced chemotactic and chemoinvasive signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2004, 279 (10): 9115-9124. 10.1074/jbc.M308083200.View ArticlePubMed
- Chen B, Blair DG, Plisov S, Vasiliev G, Perantoni AO, Chen Q, Athanasiou M, Wu JY, Oppenheim JJ, Yang D: Cutting edge: bone morphogenetic protein antagonists Drm/Gremlin and Dan interact with Slits and act as negative regulators of monocyte chemotaxis. J Immunol. 2004, 173 (10): 5914-5917.View ArticlePubMed
- Guan H, Zu G, Xie Y, Tang H, Johnson M, Xu X, Kevil C, Xiong WC, Elmets C, Rao Y, et al: Neuronal repellent Slit2 inhibits dendritic cell migration and the development of immune responses. J Immunol. 2003, 171 (12): 6519-6526.View ArticlePubMed
- Tole S, Mukovozov IM, Huang YW, Magalhaes MA, Yan M, Crow MR, Liu GY, Sun CX, Durocher Y, Glogauer M, et al: The axonal repellent, Slit2, inhibits directional migration of circulating neutrophils. J Leukoc Biol. 2009, 86 (6): 1403-1415. 10.1189/jlb.0609391.View ArticlePubMed
- Wu JY, Feng L, Park HT, Havlioglu N, Wen L, Tang H, Bacon KB, Jiang Z, Zhang X, Rao Y: The neuronal repellent Slit inhibits leukocyte chemotaxis induced by chemotactic factors. Nature. 2001, 410 (6831): 948-952. 10.1038/35073616.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Prasad A, Qamri Z, Wu J, Ganju RK: Slit-2/Robo-1 modulates the CXCL12/CXCR4-induced chemotaxis of T cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2007, 82 (3): 465-476. 10.1189/jlb.1106678.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Anand AR, Tirumuru N, Ganju RK: A novel role for Slit2/Robo1 axis in modulating HIV-1 replication in T cells. AIDS. 2011, 25 (17): 2105-2111. 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834bab86.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Zhang X, Yu J, Kuzontkoski PM, Zhu W, Li DY, Groopman JE: Slit2/Robo4 signaling modulates HIV-1 gp120-induced lymphatic hyperpermeability. PLoS Pathog. 2012, 8 (1): e1002461-10.1371/journal.ppat.1002461.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Morlot C, Thielens NM, Ravelli RB, Hemrika W, Romijn RA, Gros P, Cusack S, McCarthy AA: Structural insights into the Slit-Robo complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007, 104 (38): 14923-14928. 10.1073/pnas.0705310104.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Nguyen Ba-Charvet KT, Brose K, Ma L, Wang KH, Marillat V, Sotelo C, Tessier-Lavigne M, Chedotal A: Diversity and specificity of actions of Slit2 proteolytic fragments in axon guidance. J Neurosci. 2001, 21 (12): 4281-4289.PubMed
- London NR, Zhu W, Bozza FA, Smith MC, Greif DM, Sorensen LK, Chen L, Kaminoh Y, Chan AC, Passi SF, et al: Targeting Robo4-dependent slit signaling to survive the cytokine storm in sepsis and influenza. Sci Transl Med. 2010, 2 (23): 23ra19-10.1126/scitranslmed.3000678.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ghose A, Van Vactor D: GAPs in Slit-Robo signaling. Bioessays. 2002, 24 (5): 401-404. 10.1002/bies.10080.View ArticlePubMed
- Liu D, Hou J, Hu X, Wang X, Xiao Y, Mou Y, De Leon H: Neuronal chemorepellent Slit2 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration by suppressing small GTPase Rac1 activation. Circ Res. 2006, 98 (4): 480-489. 10.1161/01.RES.0000205764.85931.4b.View ArticlePubMed
- Stella MC, Trusolino L, Comoglio PM: The Slit/Robo system suppresses hepatocyte growth factor-dependent invasion and morphogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2009, 20 (2): 642-657.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Schmitz AA, Govek EE, Bottner B, Van Aelst L: Rho GTPases: signaling, migration, and invasion. Exp Cell Res. 2000, 261 (1): 1-12. 10.1006/excr.2000.5049.View ArticlePubMed
- Jimenez-Baranda S, Gomez-Mouton C, Rojas A, Martinez-Prats L, Mira E, Ana Lacalle R, Valencia A, Dimitrov DS, Viola A, Delgado R, et al: Filamin-A regulates actin-dependent clustering of HIV receptors. Nat Cell Biol. 2007, 9 (7): 838-846. 10.1038/ncb1610.View ArticlePubMed
- Harmon B, Ratner L: Induction of the Galpha(q) signaling cascade by the human immunodeficiency virus envelope is required for virus entry. J Virol. 2008, 82 (18): 9191-9205. 10.1128/JVI.00424-08.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Yoder A, Yu D, Dong L, Iyer SR, Xu X, Kelly J, Liu J, Wang W, Vorster PJ, Agulto L, et al: HIV envelope-CXCR4 signaling activates cofilin to overcome cortical actin restriction in resting CD4 T cells. Cell. 2008, 134 (5): 782-792. 10.1016/j.cell.2008.06.036.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Vorster PJ, Guo J, Yoder A, Wang W, Zheng Y, Xu X, Yu D, Spear M, Wu Y: LIM kinase 1 modulates cortical actin and CXCR4 cycling and is activated by HIV-1 to initiate viral infection. J Biol Chem. 2011, 286 (14): 12554-12564. 10.1074/jbc.M110.182238.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Spear M, Guo J, Wu Y: The trinity of the cortical actin in the initiation of HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2012, 9: 45-10.1186/1742-4690-9-45.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Aiken C: Pseudotyping human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus targets HIV-1 entry to an endocytic pathway and suppresses both the requirement for Nef and the sensitivity to cyclosporin A. J Virol. 1997, 71 (8): 5871-5877.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Piper M, Anderson R, Dwivedy A, Weinl C, van Horck F, Leung KM, Cogill E, Holt C: Signaling mechanisms underlying Slit2-induced collapse of Xenopus retinal growth cones. Neuron. 2006, 49 (2): 215-228. 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.12.008.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Patel S, Huang YW, Reheman A, Pluthero FG, Chaturvedi S, Mukovozov IM, Tole S, Liu GY, Li L, Durocher Y, et al: The cell motility modulator Slit2 is a potent inhibitor of platelet function. Circulation. 2012, 126 (11): 1385-1395. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.105452.View ArticlePubMed
- Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ: HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J Exp Med. 2004, 199 (2): 283-293. 10.1084/jem.20030648.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ruggiero E, Bona R, Muratori C, Federico M: Virological consequences of early events following cell-cell contact between human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and uninfected CD4+ cells. J Virol. 2008, 82 (16): 7773-7789. 10.1128/JVI.00695-08.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Cavrois M, De Noronha C, Greene WC: A sensitive and specific enzyme-based assay detecting HIV-1 virion fusion in primary T lymphocytes. Nat Biotechnol. 2002, 20 (11): 1151-1154. 10.1038/nbt745.View ArticlePubMed
- Nagaraja T, Anand AR, Zhao H, Ganju RK: The adaptor protein SLP-76 regulates HIV-1 release and cell-to-cell transmission in T cells. J Immunol. 2012, 188 (6): 2769-2777. 10.4049/jimmunol.1102106.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Bashaw GJ, Kidd T, Murray D, Pawson T, Goodman CS: Repulsive axon guidance: Abelson and Enabled play opposing roles downstream of the roundabout receptor. Cell. 2000, 101 (7): 703-715. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80883-1.View ArticlePubMed
- Wong K, Ren XR, Huang YZ, Xie Y, Liu G, Saito H, Tang H, Wen L, Brady-Kalnay SM, Mei L, et al: Signal transduction in neuronal migration: roles of GTPase activating proteins and the small GTPase Cdc42 in the Slit-Robo pathway. Cell. 2001, 107 (2): 209-221. 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00530-X.View ArticlePubMed
- Ye BQ, Geng ZH, Ma L, Geng JG: Slit2 regulates attractive eosinophil and repulsive neutrophil chemotaxis through differential srGAP1 expression during lung inflammation. J Immunol. 2010, 185 (10): 6294-6305. 10.4049/jimmunol.1001648.View ArticlePubMed
- Balabanian K, Harriague J, Decrion C, Lagane B, Shorte S, Baleux F, Virelizier JL, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Chakrabarti LA: CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein functions as a viral chemokine in unstimulated primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2004, 173 (12): 7150-7160.View ArticlePubMed
- Costantino CM, Gupta A, Yewdall AW, Dale BM, Devi LA, Chen BK: Cannabinoid receptor 2-mediated attenuation of CXCR4-tropic HIV infection in primary CD4+ T cells. PLoS One. 2012, 7 (3): e33961-10.1371/journal.pone.0033961.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Wu Y, Yoder A, Yu D, Wang W, Liu J, Barrett T, Wheeler D, Schlauch K: Cofilin activation in peripheral CD4 T cells of HIV-1 infected patients: a pilot study. Retrovirology. 2008, 5: 95-10.1186/1742-4690-5-95.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Morlot C, Hemrika W, Romijn RA, Gros P, Cusack S, McCarthy AA: Production of Slit2 LRR domains in mammalian cells for structural studies and the structure of human Slit2 domain 3. Acta Crystallogr D: Biol Crystallogr. 2007, 63 (Pt 9): 961-968.View Article
- Naghavi MH, Valente S, Hatziioannou T, de Los Santos K, Wen Y, Mott C, Gundersen GG, Goff SP: Moesin regulates stable microtubule formation and limits retroviral infection in cultured cells. EMBO J. 2007, 26 (1): 41-52. 10.1038/sj.emboj.7601475.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Naghavi MH, Goff SP: Retroviral proteins that interact with the host cell cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Immunol. 2007, 19 (4): 402-407. 10.1016/j.coi.2007.07.003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ploubidou A, Way M: Viral transport and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001, 13 (1): 97-105. 10.1016/S0955-0674(00)00180-0.View ArticlePubMed
- Barrero-Villar M, Cabrero JR, Gordon-Alonso M, Barroso-Gonzalez J, Alvarez-Losada S, Munoz-Fernandez MA, Sanchez-Madrid F, Valenzuela-Fernandez A: Moesin is required for HIV-1-induced CD4-CXCR4 interaction, F-actin redistribution, membrane fusion and viral infection in lymphocytes. J Cell Sci. 2009, 122 (Pt 1): 103-113.View ArticlePubMed
- Pontow SE, Heyden NV, Wei S, Ratner L: Actin cytoskeletal reorganizations and coreceptor-mediated activation of rac during human immunodeficiency virus-induced cell fusion. J Virol. 2004, 78 (13): 7138-7147. 10.1128/JVI.78.13.7138-7147.2004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kanellis J, Garcia GE, Li P, Parra G, Wilson CB, Rao Y, Han S, Smith CW, Johnson RJ, Wu JY, et al: Modulation of inflammation by slit protein in vivo in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis. Am J Pathol. 2004, 165 (1): 341-352. 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63301-9.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Sourisseau M, Sol-Foulon N, Porrot F, Blanchet F, Schwartz O: Inefficient human immunodeficiency virus replication in mobile lymphocytes. J Virol. 2007, 81 (2): 1000-1012. 10.1128/JVI.01629-06.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Bartz SR, Vodicka MA: Production of high-titer human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Methods. 1997, 12 (4): 337-342. 10.1006/meth.1997.0487.View ArticlePubMed
- Canki M, Thai JN, Chao W, Ghorpade A, Potash MJ, Volsky DJ: Highly productive infection with pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) indicates no intracellular restrictions to HIV-1 replication in primary human astrocytes. J Virol. 2001, 75 (17): 7925-7933. 10.1128/JVI.75.17.7925-7933.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Finnegan CM, Blumenthal R: Fenretinide inhibits HIV infection by promoting viral endocytosis. Antiviral Res. 2006, 69 (2): 116-123. 10.1016/j.antiviral.2005.11.002.View ArticlePubMed
- Mbisa JL, Delviks-Frankenberry KA, Thomas JA, Gorelick RJ, Pathak VK: Real-time PCR analysis of HIV-1 replication post-entry events. Methods Mol Biol. 2009, 485: 55-72. 10.1007/978-1-59745-170-3_5.View ArticlePubMed
- Sundstrom JB, Ellis JE, Hair GA, Kirshenbaum AS, Metcalfe DD, Yi H, Cardona AC, Lindsay MK, Ansari AA: Human tissue mast cells are an inducible reservoir of persistent HIV infection. Blood. 2007, 109 (12): 5293-5300. 10.1182/blood-2006-11-058438.View ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.